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Mírian Romitti, Vitor C Fabris, Patricia K Ziegelmann, Ana Luiza Maia, and Poli Mara Spritzer

, 4 , 5 ). Diagnosis of this complex multifactorial disease is based on the presence of two out of three of the following: clinical and/or biochemical androgen excess, anovulation and polycystic ovaries on pelvic ultrasound. The mechanisms underlying

Open access

Gunjan Garg, Garima Kachhawa, Rekha Ramot, Rajesh Khadgawat, Nikhil Tandon, V Sreenivas, Alka Kriplani, and N Gupta

are known to be at an increased risk for IR and present most frequently with complaints of infertility, menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, and/or other outward signs of androgen excess such as acne or alopecia (10) . Prevalence rates of IR have been

Open access

Henrik Falhammar, Hedi Claahsen-van der Grinten, Nicole Reisch, Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Anna Nordenström, Robert Roehle, Claire Bouvattier, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Birgit Köhler, and on behalf of the dsd-LIFE group

atypical sex chromosome configurations such as Turner syndrome (TS), Klinefelter syndrome (KS), 45,X/46,XY and 46,XX/46,XY; XY-DSD characterized by impairment of testicular development, androgen biosynthesis or action or severe hypospadias of unknown origin

Open access

Vittorio Unfer, Fabio Facchinetti, Beatrice Orrù, Barbara Giordani, and John Nestler

place under the control of DCI. This molecule on the ovary regulates the insulin-induced androgen synthesis, whereas MI regulates glucose uptake and FSH signaling ( 1 ). In view of its recognized insulin-sensitizing activity, MI has been used to

Open access

Jan Roar Mellembakken, Azita Mahmoudan, Lars Mørkrid, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Laure Morin-Papunen, Juha S Tapanainen, Terhi T Piltonen, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Eszter Vanky, Pernille Ravn, Richard Christian Jensen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, and Dorte Glintborg

( 19 ). This method shows a close correlation with the determination of testosterone levels using mass spectrometry ( 19 ). Free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by dividing total testosterone with SHBG and multiplying by 100. Statistics

Open access

Efstratios Kardalas, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Gerasimos Siasos, and Andromachi Vryonidou

(DOC), urinary 17-ketosteroids, urinary tetra hydrometabolites, adrenal androgens, testosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone are elevated. On the contrast, in 17-alpha hydroxylase deficiency, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol cortisol, adrenal

Open access

Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

etiology of PCOS, and it can disturb the steroidogenesis process. The StAR protein regulates the transport of cholesterol through the mitochondrial membrane in the first step of androgen biosynthesis ( 14 , 15 ). Evidence suggests that patients with PCOS

Open access

M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra, and H J G Bilo

, elevated androgen levels, alopecia, acromegaly, hypo­thyroidism, hyperthyroidism, liver cirrhosis, and use of oral contraceptive or anti-epileptic drugs were excluded. Measurements The following data were recorded at baseline: smoking, alcohol

Open access

Brendan J Nolan, Aviva S Frydman, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Meg Carroll, Mathis Grossmann, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Ada S Cheung

Introduction Transgender (trans) individuals, including those who are binary and/or non-binary identified, undergoing feminising hormone therapy are often treated with oestradiol with or without anti-androgen therapy. Treatment allows the

Open access

Sandra R Dahl, Ingrid Nermoen, Ingeborg Brønstad, Eystein S Husebye, Kristian Løvås, and Per M Thorsby

the simple virilizing (SV) form where sufficient aldosterone is produced to avoid salt wasting. Both are accompanied by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-driven increase in adrenal androgens with a virilizing effect on girls. Untreated, premature