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Gabriella Oliveira Lima Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Alex Luiz Menezes da Silva Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Julianne Elba Cunha Azevedo Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Chirlene Pinheiro Nascimento Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Luana Rodrigues Vieira Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Akira Otake Hamoy Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Luan Oliveira Ferreira Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Verônica Regina Lobato Oliveira Bahia Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Animal Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Nilton Akio Muto Amazon Bioactive Compounds Valorization Center, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Dielly Catrina Favacho Lopes Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Moisés Hamoy Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Low plasma levels of vitamin D causes bone mineral change that can precipitate osteopenia and osteoporosis and could aggravate autoimmune diseases, hypertension and diabetes. The demand for vitamin D supplementation becomes necessary; however, the consumption of vitamin D is not without risks, which its toxicity could have potentially serious consequences related to hypervitaminosis D, such as hypercalcemia and cerebral alterations. Thus, the present study describes the electroencephalographic changes caused by supraphysiological doses of vitamin D in the brain electrical dynamics and the electrocardiographic changes. After 4 days of treatment with vitamin D at a dose of 25,000 IU/kg, the serum calcium levels found were increased in comparison with the control group. The electrocorticogram analysis found a reduction in wave activity in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. For ECG was observed changes with shortened QT follow-up, which could be related to serum calcium concentration. This study presented important evidence about the cerebral and cardiac alterations caused by high doses of vitamin D, indicating valuable parameters in the screening and decision-making process for diagnosing patients with symptoms suggestive of intoxication.

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Jane Fletcher Nutrition Nurses, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
School of Nursing, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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Emma L Bishop Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Stephanie R Harrison Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds, UK

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Amelia Swift School of Nursing, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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Sheldon C Cooper Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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Sarah K Dimeloe Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Karim Raza Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Martin Hewison Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Vitamin D has well-documented effects on calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism but recent studies suggest a much broader role for this secosteroid in human health. Key components of the vitamin D system, notably the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-activating enzyme (1α-hydroxylase), are present in a wide array of tissues, notably macrophages, dendritic cells and T lymphocytes (T cells) from the immune system. Thus, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) can be converted to hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) within immune cells, and then interact with VDR and promote transcriptional and epigenomic responses in the same or neighbouring cells. These intracrine and paracrine effects of 1,25D have been shown to drive antibacterial or antiviral innate responses, as well as to attenuate inflammatory T cell adaptive immunity. Beyond these mechanistic observations, association studies have reported the correlation between low serum 25D levels and the risk and severity of human immune disorders including autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. The proposed explanation for this is that decreased availability of 25D compromises immune cell synthesis of 1,25D leading to impaired innate immunity and over-exuberant inflammatory adaptive immunity. The aim of the current review is to explore the mechanistic basis for immunomodulatory effects of 25D and 1,25D in greater detail with specific emphasis on how vitamin D-deficiency (low serum levels of 25D) may lead to dysregulation of macrophage, dendritic cell and T cell function and increase the risk of inflammatory autoimmune disease.

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