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Open access

Sanna Mustaniemi, Marja Vääräsmäki, Johan G Eriksson, Mika Gissler, Hannele Laivuori, Hilkka Ijäs, Aini Bloigu, Eero Kajantie and Laure Morin-Papunen


To study the roles of self-reported symptoms and/or prior diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and other potential risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to clarify whether the screening of GDM in early pregnancy is beneficial for all women with PCOS.


The FinnGeDi multicentre case-control study including 1146 women with singleton pregnancies diagnosed with GDM and 1066 non-diabetic pregnant women. There were 174 women with PCOS (symptoms and/or diagnosis self-reported by a questionnaire) and 1767 women without PCOS (data missing for 271).


The study population (N = 1941) was divided into four subgroups: GDM + PCOS (N = 105), GDM + non-PCOS (N = 909), non-GDM + PCOS (N = 69), and controls (N = 858). The participants’ characteristics and their parents’ medical histories were compared.


The prevalence of PCOS was 10.4% among GDM women and 7.4% among non-diabetics (odds ratios (OR) 1.44, 95% CI: 1.05–1.97), but PCOS was not an independent risk for GDM after adjustments for participants’ age and pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.74–1.54). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the most significant parameters associated with GDM were overweight, obesity, age ≥35 years, participant’s mother’s history of GDM, either parent’s history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and participant’s own preterm birth.


The increased risk of GDM in women with PCOS was related to obesity and increased maternal age rather than to PCOS itself, suggesting that routine early screening of GDM in PCOS women without other risk factors should be reconsidered. Instead, family history of GDM/T2D and own preterm birth were independent risk factors for GDM.

Open access

Shilpa Lingaiah, Laure Morin-Papunen, Terhi Piltonen, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Elisabet Stener-Victorin and Juha S Tapanainen


Serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), an adipokine thought to affect systemic insulin sensitivity, were compared between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS controls to evaluate the association of RBP4 with clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters of PCOS.

Subjects and methods

Serum RBP4 levels were analysed in 278 women with PCOS (age range 18–57 years) and 191 non-PCOS controls (age 20–53 years) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


Serum levels of RBP4 were increased in women with PCOS compared with control women in the whole population (45.1 ± 24.0 (s.d.) vs 33.5 ± 18.3 mg/L, P < 0.001). Age-stratified analysis showed that serum RBP4 levels were increased in women with PCOS aged ≤30 years compared with controls (47.7 ± 23.5 vs 27.1 ± 10.4 mg/L, P < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were seen in the other age groups. No significant correlations of RBP4 were seen with either steroids or indices of insulin resistance.


Although serum RBP4 levels were increased in younger women with PCOS compared with age-matched non-PCOS controls, RBP4 does not seem to be a good marker of insulin resistance or other metabolic derangements in women with PCOS.