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  • Author: Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel x
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Open access

Sandra N Slagter, Robert P van Waateringe, André P van Beek, Melanie M van der Klauw, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel and Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk

Introduction

To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components within sex-, body mass index (BMI)- and age combined clusters. In addition, we used the age-adjusted blood pressure thresholds to demonstrate the effect on the prevalence of MetS and elevated blood pressure.

Subjects and methods

Cross-sectional data from 74,531 Western European participants, aged 18–79 years, were used from the Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study. MetS was defined according to the revised NCEP-ATPIII. Age-adjusted blood pressure thresholds were defined as recommended by the eight reports of the Joint National Committee (≥140/90 mmHg for those aged <60 years, and ≥150/90 mmHg for those aged ≥60 years).

Results

19.2% men and 12.1% women had MetS. MetS prevalence increased with BMI and age. Independent of BMI, abdominal obesity dominated MetS prevalence especially in women, while elevated blood pressure was already highly prevalent among young men. Applying age-adjusted blood pressure thresholds resulted in a 0.2–11.9% prevalence drop in MetS and 6.0–36.3% prevalence drop in elevated blood pressure, within the combined sex, BMI and age clusters.

Conclusions

We observed a gender disparity with age and BMI for the prevalence of MetS and, especially, abdominal obesity and elevated blood pressure. The strict threshold level for elevated blood pressure in the revised NCEP-ATPIII, results in an overestimation of MetS prevalence.

Open access

Marloes Emous, Merel van den Broek, Ragnhild B Wijma, Loek J M de Heide, Gertjan van Dijk, Anke Laskewitz, Erik Totté, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel and André P van Beek

Objective

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective way to induce sustainable weight loss and can be complicated by postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (PHH). To study the prevalence and the mechanisms behind the occurrence of hypoglycaemia after a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) in patients with primary RYGB.

Design

This is a cross-sectional study of patients 4 years after primary RYGB.

Methods

From a total population of 550 patients, a random sample of 44 patients completed the total test procedures. A standardized mixed meal was used as stimulus. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline, every 10 min during the first half hour and every 30 min until 210 min after the start. Symptoms were assessed by questionnaires. Hypoglycaemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 3.3 mmol/L.

Results

The prevalence of postprandial hypoglycaemia was 48% and was asymptomatic in all patients. Development of hypoglycaemia was more frequent in patients with lower weight at surgery (P = 0.045), with higher weight loss after surgery (P = 0.011), and with higher insulin sensitivity calculated by the homeostasis model assessment indexes (HOMA2-IR, P = 0.014) and enhanced beta cell function (insulinogenic index at 20 min, P = 0.001).

Conclusion

In a randomly selected population 4 years after primary RYGB surgery, 48% of patients developed a hypoglycaemic event during an MMTT without symptoms, suggesting the presence of hypoglycaemia unawareness in these patients. The findings in this study suggest that the pathophysiology of PHH is multifactorial.