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Open access

Frederic Schrøder Arendrup, Severine Mazaud-Guittot, Bernard Jégou, and David Møbjerg Kristensen

resulted in reduced birth weight while not affecting fertility ( 15 ). These data were contested in 2016, when three experimental studies in rodent were published suggesting that prenatal analgesic exposure could disrupt female reproductive development

Open access

Wioletta Pijacka, Morag G Hunter, Fiona Broughton Pipkin, and Martin R Luck

to that of AGTR1. The high density of AGTR1 at the beginning of gestation is associated with higher content in maternal tissue in early placentomes (10) . Several studies have shown that RAS is active during early foetal development of many species

Open access

Marieke Stientje Velema, Aline de Nooijer, Ad R M M Hermus, Henri J L M Timmers, Jacques W M Lenders, Olga Husson, and Jaap Deinum

independent, non-profit cancer research organization which coordinates and conducts international translational and clinical research to improve the standard of cancer treatment for patients. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is dedicated to the development of

Open access

Bilal B Mughal, Jean-Baptiste Fini, and Barbara A Demeneix

Introduction Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development where it influences, during specific temporal windows, neurogenesis, neuronal migration, neuronal and glial cell differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis. These

Open access

R Walia, M Singla, K Vaiphei, S Kumar, and A Bhansali

Introduction Disorder of sex development (DSD) is defined as congenital condition in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex is atypical ( 1 ). The incidence of DSD is 1:4500 to 1:5000 live births ( 2 , 3 ). It is a

Open access

Luigi Laino, Silvia Majore, Nicoletta Preziosi, Barbara Grammatico, Carmelilia De Bernardo, Salvatore Scommegna, Anna Maria Rapone, Giacinto Marrocco, Irene Bottillo, and Paola Grammatico

Introduction Sex development is a multistep process under genetic control, implying a delicate network of molecular events that direct both the bi-potential gonads to become either a testis or an ovary (sex determination), and the consequent

Open access

Kate E Lines, Mahsa Javid, Anita A C Reed, Gerard V Walls, Mark Stevenson, Michelle Simon, Kreepa G Kooblall, Sian E Piret, Paul T Christie, Paul J Newey, Ann-Marie Mallon, and Rajesh V Thakker

exclusively found in the 129S6/SvEv embryos, while widespread oedema was specific to the C57BL/6 strain ( 18 ). However, the influence of genetic background and potential role of genetic modifiers on the development of tumours in adult Men1 +/- mice have not

Open access

E Kohva, P J Miettinen, S Taskinen, M Hero, A Tarkkanen, and T Raivio

Background Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which the chromosomal, anatomic or gonadal sex development is atypical ( 1 ). Today, DSD is classified into three major categories by the patient’s karyotype: sex

Open access

Zofia Kolesinska, James Acierno Jr, S Faisal Ahmed, Cheng Xu, Karina Kapczuk, Anna Skorczyk-Werner, Hanna Mikos, Aleksandra Rojek, Andreas Massouras, Maciej R Krawczynski, Nelly Pitteloud, and Marek Niedziela

Introduction Differences and/or disorders of sex development (DSD) represent rare congenital conditions in which gonadal, chromosomal or anatomical sex is atypical. Due to its heterogeneous clinical presentation and genetic architecture

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Conor V Dolan, Bibian van der Voorn, Ruth Andrew, Brian R Walker, Hilleke Hulshoff Pol, Dorret I Boomsma, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J J Finken

, there are no studies that have reported on HPA-axis activity across pubertal development. HPA-axis activity is determined by the net effect of cortisol production and metabolism. Cortisol is metabolized by various enzymes ( Fig. 1 ). The A