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Julie Refardt, Clara Odilia Sailer, Bettina Winzeler, Matthias Johannes Betz, Irina Chifu, Ingeborg Schnyder, Martin Fassnacht, Wiebke Fenske, Mirjam Christ-Crain, and

(insufficient vasopressin (AVP) secretion from the pituitary ( 2 , 3 , 4 )), the cause of primary polydipsia (with excessive fluid intake often without obvious cause) remains unclear. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a peptide hormone synthesized by

Open access

Jessica S Jarmasz, Yan Jin, Hana Vakili, and Peter A Cattini

Introduction Human (h) growth hormone (GH) is synthesized and secreted in a pulsatile manner by somatotrophs located in the anterior pituitary ( 1 ). Following the successful isolation and purification of hGH in 1944, GH secretion in humans

Open access

Amalie R Lanng, Lærke S Gasbjerg, Natasha C Bergmann, Sigrid Bergmann, Mads M Helsted, Matthew P Gillum, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, and Filip K Knop

constitute a potent stimulator of the liver-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in humans ( 13 , 14 ). In rodents, FGF21 has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity ( 15 ) and decrease hepatic glucose production, and thus, play an

Open access

Tristan Avril, Quentin Hennocq, Anne-Sophie Lambert, Juliane Leger, Dominique Simon, Laetitia Martinerie, and Claire Bouvattier

cryptorchidism ( 1 ). It can be isolated or part of a combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) ( 2 ) and is usually in relation to a dysfunction in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion or action. The major clinical consequences of CHH are pubertal

Open access

Jiaxi Li, Pu Huang, Jing Xiong, Xinyue Liang, Mei Li, Hao Ke, Chunli Chen, Yang Han, Yanhong Huang, Yan Zhou, Ziqiang Luo, Dandan Feng, and Chen Chen

Introduction Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal tract-derived hormone containing 28 amino acids. It was first discovered in 1999 as an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) to promote the secretion of GH ( 1 ). According to its acylation

Open access

Caishun Zhang, Junhua Yuan, Qian Lin, Manwen Li, Liuxin Wang, Rui Wang, Xi Chen, Zhengyao Jiang, Kun Zhu, Xiaoli Chang, Bin Wang, and Jing Dong

Introduction Ghrelin is a 28 amino acids acylated peptide, which was first discovered as an endogenous natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor(GHSR) 1α by Kojima et al . in 1999 ( 1 ). Ghrelin was first described to

Open access

Elin Kahlert, Martina Blaschke, Knut Brockmann, Clemens Freiberg, Onno E Janssen, Nikolaus Stahnke, Domenika Strik, Martin Merkel, Alexander Mann, Klaus-Peter Liesenkötter, and Heide Siggelkow

estrogen replacement therapy to treat ovarian insufficiency and induce puberty. Although human growth hormone therapy (hGHT) has been established in TS patients, its efficacy varies and depends on many factors, including dose, duration, and age at treatment

Open access

Guillem Cuatrecasas, Hatice Kumru, M Josep Coves, and Joan Vidal

Introduction Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been studied in neurological disorders affecting central nervous systems, such as multiple sclerosis to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ( 1 , 2 ). Because of the direct impact to the pituitary

Open access

Zhengrong Jiang, Linghong Huang, Lijun Chen, Jingxiong Zhou, Bo Liang, Xuefeng Bai, Lizhen Wu, and Huibin Huang

steroid hormone receptor activity, growth factor binding, growth factor activity, cytokine receptor activity, semaphoring receptor binding, and chemorepellent activity. The top 10 BP, CC, and MF terms are listed in Fig. 3A . Figure 3 Functional

Open access

A Daniel Bird, Spencer Greatorex, David Reser, Gareth G Lavery, and Timothy J Cole

staining was observed in scattered cells throughout the anterior lobe ( Fig. 7 A and D). To identify the particular cell type stained for HSD1L double-immunofluorescence was performed with antibody markers specific for pituitary somatotrophs (growth hormone