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E Kohva, P J Miettinen, S Taskinen, M Hero, A Tarkkanen, and T Raivio

inquiry. 46,XY DSD  E34.5 Androgen insensitivity syndrome  Q53.2 Undescended testicle, bilateral  Q54.2 Hypospadias, penoscrotal  Q54.3 Hypospadias, perineal  Q55.00 Absence and aplasia of testis  Q55

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Conor V Dolan, Bibian van der Voorn, Ruth Andrew, Brian R Walker, Hilleke Hulshoff Pol, Dorret I Boomsma, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J J Finken

, unfortunately our study lacked a more detailed assessment of body composition. It is unclear whether the sex differences in cortisol metabolism that we observed are androgen- or estrogen mediated. A study in adult men showed that testosterone reduced the CRH

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Nicolás Crisosto, Bárbara Echiburú, Manuel Maliqueo, Marta Luchsinger, Pedro Rojas, Sergio Recabarren, and Teresa Sir-Petermann

next stage of puberty. Higher androstenedione may come from the testis or the adrenal gland. A possible explanation is that there is an increased secretion of androgens from the adrenal gland as has been suggested in PCOS women ( 30 , 31 ), and then as

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Raymond J Rodgers, Jodie C Avery, Vivienne M Moore, Michael J Davies, Ricardo Azziz, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Lisa J Moran, Sarah A Robertson, Nigel K Stepto, Robert J Norman, and Helena J Teede

awareness of the condition is limited, while PCOS research is inadequate and poorly funded ( 4 ). PCOS is a reproductive and metabolic condition with psychological consequences ( 5 ). Women with PCOS suffer symptoms of excess androgen (hirsutism, acne

Open access

M Jensterle, A Podbregar, K Goricar, N Gregoric, and A Janez

Montori VM & Task Force, Endocrine Society . Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2010 95 2536 – 2559 . ( https

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Mírian Romitti, Vitor C Fabris, Patricia K Ziegelmann, Ana Luiza Maia, and Poli Mara Spritzer

, 4 , 5 ). Diagnosis of this complex multifactorial disease is based on the presence of two out of three of the following: clinical and/or biochemical androgen excess, anovulation and polycystic ovaries on pelvic ultrasound. The mechanisms underlying

Open access

Gunjan Garg, Garima Kachhawa, Rekha Ramot, Rajesh Khadgawat, Nikhil Tandon, V Sreenivas, Alka Kriplani, and N Gupta

are known to be at an increased risk for IR and present most frequently with complaints of infertility, menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, and/or other outward signs of androgen excess such as acne or alopecia (10) . Prevalence rates of IR have been

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Vittorio Unfer, Fabio Facchinetti, Beatrice Orrù, Barbara Giordani, and John Nestler

place under the control of DCI. This molecule on the ovary regulates the insulin-induced androgen synthesis, whereas MI regulates glucose uptake and FSH signaling ( 1 ). In view of its recognized insulin-sensitizing activity, MI has been used to

Open access

Henrik Falhammar, Hedi Claahsen-van der Grinten, Nicole Reisch, Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Anna Nordenström, Robert Roehle, Claire Bouvattier, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Birgit Köhler, and on behalf of the dsd-LIFE group

atypical sex chromosome configurations such as Turner syndrome (TS), Klinefelter syndrome (KS), 45,X/46,XY and 46,XX/46,XY; XY-DSD characterized by impairment of testicular development, androgen biosynthesis or action or severe hypospadias of unknown origin

Open access

Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

etiology of PCOS, and it can disturb the steroidogenesis process. The StAR protein regulates the transport of cholesterol through the mitochondrial membrane in the first step of androgen biosynthesis ( 14 , 15 ). Evidence suggests that patients with PCOS