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Zhiwei Zhang, Hui Zhao, and Aixia Wang

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) manifests as various degrees of hyperglycemia during pregnancy. GDM has a high incidence rate and is by far one of the leading causes of neonatal and maternal mortality ( 1 ). The etiology of

Open access

Olli Helminen, Tytti Pokka, Susanna Aspholm, Jorma Ilonen, Olli G Simell, Mikael Knip, and Riitta Veijola

Introduction Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. The incidence rate has been rising throughout the Western world ( 1 ). The incidence is highest in Finland, in 2006 as high as 64.3 per 100,000 children

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Angela Köninger, Antonella Iannaccone, Ensar Hajder, Mirjam Frank, Boerge Schmidt, Ekkehard Schleussner, Rainer Kimmig, Alexandra Gellhaus, and Hans Dieplinger

pregnancy complications like gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) ( 11 , 12 ). IR, as determined with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) ( 13 ), when present before the beginning of a pregnancy seems to be the strongest factor associated with the

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Louise Færch, Anders Juul, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, and Birger Thorsteinsson

Introduction GH is part of the second-line counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia and acts by promoting gluconeogenesis. In long-standing type 1 diabetes with counter-regulatory failure in terms of diminished glucagon and adrenaline responses

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Henrik Falhammar, Magnus Kjellman, and Jan Calissendorff

syndrome. Subjects and methods This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. All consecutive patients with an International Classification of

Open access

Carla Scaroni, Nora M Albiger, Serena Palmieri, Davide Iacuaniello, Chiara Graziadio, Luca Damiani, Marialuisa Zilio, Antonio Stigliano, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello, and the Altogether to Beat Cushing’s Syndrome (ABC) study group

of the organism to survival ( 1 ). Some common endocrine diseases including obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic alcoholism, and psychiatric disorders may also coincide with HPA axis activation

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Eva O Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander, and Magnus Hillman

Introduction Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes ( 1 , 2 ) and is a major cause of blindness ( 3 , 4 ). DR progresses over time, but fortunately only a limited number of patients acquire one of the two major

Open access

Beril Erdem, Angela Schulz, Emel Saglar, Ferhat Deniz, Torsten Schöneberg, and Hatice Mergen

following an osmotic gradient ( 1 , 2 ). Disruption of the renal AVPR2/AQP2 pathway can cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) characterized by the inability to concentrate urine ( 3 , 4 ). Patients have abnormally diluted and large volumes of urine

Open access

Ram P Narayanan, Bo Fu, Adrian H Heald, Kirk W Siddals, Robert L Oliver, Julie E Hudson, Antony Payton, Simon G Anderson, Anne White, William E R Ollier, and J Martin Gibson

Introduction The rising prevalence of diabetes worldwide is associated with increased morbidity and mortality (1) . Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication of diabetes and is the commonest cause of end-stage renal disease (2) . The

Open access

A Rouland, J-C Chauvet-Gelinier, A-L Sberna, E Crevisy, P Buffier, T Mouillot, J-M Petit, and B Vergès

Introduction Type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are chronic diseases in which psychological determinants are an important field of research, not only to improve personalized treatment and educational strategies, but also to directly