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Athanasios Zervas, George Chrousos, and Sarantis Livadas

retardation, etc.) • Rheumatological (chronic juvenile arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc.)   Endocrine diseases • Growth hormone/IGF-1 deficiency or insensitivity • Hypothyroidism • Hypercortisolism • Precocious puberty

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Josephina G Kuiper, Aline C Fenneman, Anne H van der Spek, Elena Rampanelli, Max Nieuwdorp, Myrthe P P van Herk-Sukel, Valery E P P Lemmens, Ernst J Kuipers, Ron M C Herings, and Eric Fliers

Introduction Primary hypothyroidism is a common condition with a rapidly rising global prevalence. In the Netherlands, the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism has increased from 0.4 to 2.9% over the past 15 years ( 1 ) ( www

Open access

Marek Niedziela

drugs (ATDs) does not prevent relapse of this disease. Hashitoxicosis in its natural course switches to permanent hypothyroidism, usually over a few weeks/months. However , one should remember that hashitoxicosis can be recurrent. The clinical

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Sophie-Charlotte Drogge, Mirjam Frank, Carolin Girschik, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Dagmar Führer-Sakel, and Börge Schmidt

values, abnormal TSH values are more sensitive markers for early thyroid dysfunction including hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism than the measurement of thyroid hormones values ( 9 ). Further, it has been reported that thyroid function is

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Xin He, Qin Yan, Chazhen Liu, Zhengyuan Wang, Ping Liao, Tong Liu, Zehuan Shi, Qi Song, Xueying Cui, Wenjing Wang, and Jiajie Zang

gestational age ( 10 , 11 ). Overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism have a high risk of light birth weight or SGA births ( 11 ). Mild thyroid dysfunction, which is more prevalent than overt hypothyroidism, is associated with SGA and LGA according to some

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Enrique Soto-Pedre, Paul J Newey, John S Bevan, and Graham P Leese

. Hyperprolactinaemia can be physiological, pathological or iatrogenic, and the causes of non-physiological hyperprolactinaemia include pituitary disorders, drugs (most commonly antipsychotic agents) and hypothyroidism; aside from these, idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia

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L M Mongioì, R A Condorelli, S La Vignera, and A E Calogero

Hypopituitarism GH deficiency, Hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, obesity Cortisone acetate 62.5 mg/day LT4 100 µg/day Drop out 2 F 43 Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, obesity Cortisone acetate 37.5 mg/day LT4

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Bliss Anderson and Daniel L Morganstein

becoming hypothyroid (lethargy, constipation, cold intolerance, etc.) Thyroid hormone profile Hypothyroidism Thyroid hormone replacement 5.2–5.9% (8, 9) (with anti-CTLA4) Thyrotoxicosis Consider beta blockers for palpitations (23) 5

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Hanna Karhapää, Siru Mäkelä, Hanna Laurén, Marjut Jaakkola, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, and Micaela Hernberg

dysfunction included primary hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, and transient thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism (thyroiditis). Hypothyroidism was defined as an increased TSH concentration above the upper normal limit and a fT4 concentration under the

Open access

Kjersti S Bakken, Kristina Randjelovic Nermo, Bjørn Gunnar Nedrebø, Tim I M Korevaar, and Tor A Strand

. Both overt hypothyroidism, as well as Graves’ hyperthyroidism, is associated with miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and low birth weight, and suboptimal offspring neurocognitive development ( 2 ). In the last two decades, some but not all