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André Marques-Pinto and Davide Carvalho

oestrogenic/anti-androgenic activity that act by interfering with the oestrogen receptors (ER) or the androgen receptor (AR) (see Table 1 ). Table 1 Reported agonist and antagonist binding of several ED to ER and AR. ED ER agonism ER antagonism AR agonism AR

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Lawrence D Hayes, Peter Herbert, Nicholas F Sculthorpe, and Fergal M Grace

) is positively correlated with age, thereby attenuating the unbound fraction of testosterone, which is available for androgen receptor interactions ( 4 , 5 ). With the age-associated reduction in anabolic hormone production, reductions in

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Xiying Zeng, Yinxiang Huang, Mulin Zhang, Yun Chen, Jiawen Ye, Yan Han, Danyan Ma, Xin Zheng, Xiaohong Yan, and Changqin Liu

congenital adrenal hyperplasia, androgen-secreting tumors, and Cushing’s syndrome ( 1 , 26 ). The ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen Medical University approved the study protocol. Clinical and biochemical measurements All

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L A Hughes, K McKay-Bounford, E A Webb, P Dasani, S Clokie, H Chandran, L McCarthy, Z Mohamed, J M W Kirk, N P Krone, S Allen, and T R P Cole

.1 HSD17B3 9q22 LHCGR 2p21 POR 7q11.2 SRD5A2 2p23 StAR 8p11.2 (B) 46,XX DSD  Disorders of ovarian development RSPO1 1p34.3 SOX9 17q24 SRY Yp11.3 WNT4 1p35  Androgen

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M S Elston, V B Crawford, M Swarbrick, M S Dray, M Head, and J V Conaglen

may result in an increase in 11-deoxycortisol, which may cross-react with cortisol in cortisol immunoassays ( 12 ). Mineralocorticoid blockade was performed using spironolactone, as eplerenone was not available. Spironolactone may worsen androgen

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Yael Sofer, Nava Nevo, Michal Vechoropoulos, Gabi Shefer, Etty Osher, Nathan Landis, Karen Tordjman, Geoffrey L Hammond, and Naftali Stern

Introduction SHBG is a homodimeric plasma glycoprotein produced by the liver that acts as the main transporter of active estrogens and androgens in almost all vertebrates ( 1 ). The protein has high affinity and selectivity to these sex

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Ladan Younesi, Zeinab Safarpour Lima, Azadeh Akbari Sene, Zahra Hosseini Jebelli, and Ghazaleh Amjad

ovaries in ultrasound ( 2 ). The three main causes of these patients’ referral are infertility (74%), irregular menstrual cycles (66%) and an increase in the level of androgens (48%) ( 3 ). It has been defined that infertility was one of the main

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Karim Gariani and François R Jornayvaz

release of androstenedione and testosterone ( 78 ). Indeed, insulin acts as a co-gonadotropin to increase luteinizing hormone (LH), therefore, stimulating androgens production. A concomitant decrease in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) mediated both by

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Luca Boeri, Paolo Capogrosso, Walter Cazzaniga, Edoardo Pozzi, Luigi Candela, Federico Belladelli, Davide Oreggia, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Nicolò Schifano, Giuseppe Fallara, Marina Pontillo, Costantino Abbate, Emanuele Montanari, Francesco Montorsi, and Andrea Salonia

the patient may have altered SHBG concentrations ( 4 , 5 ), the importance of calculated fT (cFT) and SHBG over tT alone in assessing symptoms of androgen deficiency in men with sexual dysfunctions has been recently outlined ( 3 , 6 ). Similarly

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Emanuelle Nunes-Souza, Mônica Evelise Silveira, Monalisa Castilho Mendes, Seigo Nagashima, Caroline Busatta Vaz de Paula, Guilherme Guilherme Vieira Cavalcante da Silva, Giovanna Silva Barbosa, Julia Belgrowicz Martins, Lúcia de Noronha, Luana Lenzi, José Renato Sales Barbosa, Rayssa Danilow Fachin Donin, Juliana Ferreira de Moura, Gislaine Custódio, Cleber Machado-Souza, Enzo Lalli, and Bonald Cavalcante de Figueiredo

, bone and muscle loss. The adrenal ZR is the main source of low potency androgens in females, and this loss may have consequences in aging for skin, muscle and bone metabolism. Similarly, changes in the ZR were reported previously as a reduced mass in