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Shan Wu, Jianjun Zhou, Jing Guo, Zhan Hua, Jianchen Li, and Zai Wang

for proglucagon to be dissected into glucagon, GLP-1 and GLP-2 in this cell line ( Fig. 1D , E and F ). For subcutaneous tumors, although INS-1 xenograft tumors ( 26 ) caused severe hypoglycemia, the blood glucose level showed no significant change

Open access

Giovanni Tulipano

regulatory effects of hormones (leptin, ghrelin, insulin, adiponectin, GLP-1) on energy homeostasis. In summary, hypothalamic AMPK has a role in integrating peripheral signals with neural circuits, and its activation is related to increased food intake and

Open access

Xu-Ting Song, Jia-Nan Zhang, Duo-Wei Zhao, Yu-Fei Zhai, Qi Lu, Mei-Yu Qi, Ming-Hai Lu, Shou-Long Deng, Hong-Bing Han, Xiu-Qin Yang, and Yu-Chang Yao

Carvalho C Santos MS Oliveira CR Moreira PI Duarte AI . Brain GLP-1/IGF-1 signaling and autophagy mediate exendin-4 protection against apoptosis in Type 2 diabetic rats . Molecular Neurobiology 2018 55 4030 – 4050 . (

Open access

H Vlaardingerbroek, E L T van den Akker, and A C S Hokken-Koelega

-Willi syndrome, elevated ghrelin levels are more consistent with hyperphagia than high PYY and GLP-1 levels . Neuropeptides 2011 45 301 – 307 . ( ) 70 Germain N Galusca B Le Roux CW Bossu C Ghatei MA

Open access

Jens F Rehfeld

-Bisset C Effects of intraduodenal fatty acids on appetite, antropyloroduodenal motility, and plasma CCK and GLP-1 in humans vary with their chain length . American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2004 287 R

Open access

Cecília Cristelo, Alexandra Machado, Bruno Sarmento, and Francisco Miguel Gama

Diabetes Association . Diabetes Care 2015 38 1964 – 1974 . ( ) 21 Doggrell SA Do glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have potential as adjuncts in the treatment of type 1 diabetes? Expert Opinion

Open access

Peter Wolf, Yvonne Winhofer, Martin Krššák, and Michael Krebs

. Another question to be addressed in the future is if novel drug approaches for metabolic diseases, such as sodium-glucose-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors or glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs that improve cardiovascular outcome in patients suffering

Open access

Pernille H Hellmann, Jonatan I Bagger, Katrine R Carlander, Katrine B Hansen, Julie L Forman, Joachim Størling, Elizaveta Chabanova, Jens Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, and Filip K Knop

and glucagon responses, but unaltered GLP-1 response after intervention with steroid hormone, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy subjects . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2011 96 447 – 453 . ( https

Open access

Gareth Leng

peptide signals such as GLP-1 and GIP from gastrointestinal endocrine cells ( 72 ). Three modes of action of neuropeptides When considering the actions on neurones of neuropeptides released from neurones in the brain, we can recognise three

Open access

T Grimmichova, M Haluzik, K Vondra, P Matucha, and M Hill

%, intensive insulin therapy 15.2%, diet 12.1%, combination of insulin with peroral antidiabetics (PAD) 7.6%, combination of PAD 6.1%, GLP-1 analogs 3%, gliptins 1.5%, and sulfonylureas 1.5% patients. Figure 1 Flow chart of the study. The