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Monia Cito, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti, and Valeria Sordi

, 75 ). Gastrointestinal-to-β Gastrointestinal tissues, composed by stomach and intestine, harbor NGN3 -expressing progenitor cells able to become hormone-producing cells ( 76 ). Over the last decade, several evidences have demonstrated that

Open access

K Amrein, A Papinutti, E Mathew, G Vila, and D Parekh

intestine and kidney. Mechanism of action involve 1,25(OH)2D3, FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23 – phosphaturic hormone produced in osteoblasts) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) via the PTH axis ( 84 ) Vitamin D, rather than a vitamin or just a food

Open access

Gaëtan Prévost, Marie Picot, Marie-Anne Le Solliec, Arnaud Arabo, Hind Berrahmoune, Mouna El Mehdi, Saloua Cherifi, Alexandre Benani, Emmanuelle Nédélec, Françoise Gobet, Valéry Brunel, Jérôme Leprince, Hervé Lefebvre, Youssef Anouar, and Nicolas Chartrel

Introduction Glucose homeostasis is a crucial parameter to maintain normal body function. Control of blood glucose levels is ensured by a highly sophisticated network of various hormones released by the pancreas, intestine, liver, adipose and

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Shatha Alharazy, M Denise Robertson, Susan Lanham-New, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Adeel G Chaudhary, and Eman Alissa

intestines, suppresses the production of parathyroid hormone (PTH), and enhances the renal tubular absorption of Ca and mobilization of Ca and PO 4 from bone ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). Vitamin D is not only vital for skeletal health but also involved in several

Open access

Athanasios Zervas, George Chrousos, and Sarantis Livadas

, Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis, short intestine, etc.) • Hepatic (biliary atresia, chronic hepatitis, liver transplantation, etc.) • Renal (glomerular, interstitial, tubular) • Cardiac (cianosant congenital cardiopathies) • Pulmonary (asthma

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Christine Rode Andreasen, Andreas Andersen, Filip Krag Knop, and Tina Vilsbøll

-lowering effect of GLP-1 ( 4 ). In normal physiology, GLP-1 modifies gastrointestinal function by decreasing motility of the stomach and intestine, thereby delaying gastric emptying and reducing postprandial plasma glucose excursions ( 5 ). Brain-derived GLP-1

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Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer, and Martina Rauner

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are two gastrointestinal hormones known as incretins, ‘INtestine SeCRETion Insulin’, secreted in response to nutrient intake. In order to compensate for low incretin

Open access

Wenrui Wang and Chuan Zhang

transdifferentiation is low, the transformation of enterocytes is relatively incomplete and the lifespan of intestinal insulin + cells is shorter than that of sinus insulin + cells due to CDX2 , the intestine-specific cell surface marker, which prevents enterocytes

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Karim Gariani and François R Jornayvaz

activation and hepatic insulin resistance. The liver is essentially an exocrine gland, secreting bile into the intestine, but can also be considered as an endocrine gland. Indeed, the liver produces some important hormones or hormone precursors, such as

Open access

Tsuneo Ogawa and Adolfo J de Bold

epithelium of the small intestine. Glucose-stimulated incretin is carried through the circulation to the pancreatic β cells where it stimulates insulin secretion. Blood pressure reduction has been reported in type-2 diabetic patients treated with GLP1