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Huguette S Brink, Aart Jan van der Lely, and Joke van der Linden

Introduction Gestational diabetes (GD) is defined as any glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GD has a prevalence of 7% worldwide, depending on the population studied and diagnostic criteria used ( 1 ). The

Open access

Ali Abbasi

Introduction Over the past decade, interest in studying biological markers (biomarkers) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased intensely. This happened because multiple pathobiological processes may contribute to the disease progression, which

Open access

Qiu-ming Yao, Bin Wang, Xiao-fei An, Jin-an Zhang, and Liumei Ding

Introduction Diabetes is a public health issue, and there are over 0.4 billion people suffering from diabetes over the world, and its prevalence is still increasing remarkably every year ( 1 ). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the major type

Open access

E N Dudinskaya, O N Tkacheva, M V Shestakova, N V Brailova, I D Strazhesko, D U Akasheva, O Y Isaykina, N V Sharashkina, D A Kashtanova, and S A Boytsov

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic noncommunicable disease that has reached epidemic proportions. Type 2 DM (T2DM) inevitably leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications that aggravate the course and prognosis of

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Feifei Cheng, Noel Yat Hey Ng, Claudia Ha Ting Tam, Yuying Zhang, Cadmon King Poo Lim, Guozhi Jiang, Alex Chi Wai Ng, Tiffany Tse Ling Yau, Lai Ping Cheung, Aimin Xu, Juliana C N Chan, and Ronald C W Ma

risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in PCOS patients ( 3 , 4 ). To date, some studies have reported the high progression rate of T2DM in PCOS patients. Gambineri et al. followed a total of 255 PCOS women for a mean duration of 10 years and found the

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Sanna Mustaniemi, Marja Vääräsmäki, Johan G Eriksson, Mika Gissler, Hannele Laivuori, Hilkka Ijäs, Aini Bloigu, Eero Kajantie, and Laure Morin-Papunen

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of GDM varies from 9% to 25% and the prevalence of PCOS varies from 5

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Liang Xue, Jianwu Wu, Jie Chen, and Yongkai Yang

Introduction Most pituitary adenomas (PAs) can be treated surgically using a transnasal approach; experienced clinicians can perform this surgical method effectively, ensuring safety for patients. However, diabetes insipidus (DI) is a common

Open access

Vânia Benido Silva, Liliana Fonseca, Maria Teresa Pereira, Joana Vilaverde, Clara Pinto, Fernando Pichel, Maria do Céu Almeida, and Jorge Dores

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) is defined as a subtype of hyperglycemia first detected during pregnancy and accounts for 90% of all diabetes diagnoses in pregnant women ( 1 , 2 ). This represents a worrying gestational

Open access

Xiaoli Liu, Lanxiang Liu, Rui Wang, Xiaojiao Jia, Binbin Liu, Ning Ma, and Qiang Lu

Background Many evidence-based medical studies have confirmed that cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events are the end-point events of patients with diabetes and that the pathological bases of diabetic macrovascular lesions are the

Open access

Richard H Tuligenga

Introduction Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus show faster cognitive decline compared with healthy subjects (1) . Numerous studies in patients with type 2 diabetes have dealt with the association between the level of glycaemic control and the