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Sakina Kherra, Wendy Forsyth Paterson, Filiz Mine Cizmecioglu, Jeremy Huw Jones, Mariam Kourime, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Sameh Tawfik, Andreas Kyriakou, Mohamad Guftar Shaikh, and Malcolm David Cairns Donaldson

). Clinical features include small penis, scrotal hypoplasia and cryptorchidism at birth, with spontaneous puberty but mid-pubertal arrest and reduced testicular volume attributable to a reduction in seminiferous tubules. Basal gonadotrophins and testosterone

Open access

Bo Zhu, Yumei Chen, Fang Xu, Xiaolu Shen, Xuanyu Chen, Jieqiang Lv, and Songying Zhang

in islets of the well-established dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS animal model and revealed the effects of testosterone (TE) on ER stress and apoptosis in both INS-1 cells and primary cultured mouse islets. Finally, we demonstrated that TE

Open access

Ladan Younesi, Zeinab Safarpour Lima, Azadeh Akbari Sene, Zahra Hosseini Jebelli, and Ghazaleh Amjad

ultrasonography (TVU) was performed in early follicular phase (between two and five cycles), and then the patients were tested for serum levels of luteinizing hormones, FSH, prolactin (PRL), estradiol, free testosterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and DHEAS

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Angela Köninger, Philippos Edimiris, Laura Koch, Antje Enekwe, Claudia Lamina, Sabine Kasimir-Bauer, Rainer Kimmig, and Hans Dieplinger

amenorrhea, defined as cycles lasting longer than 3 months), clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (hirsutism) with a Ferriman–Gallwey score of more than seven (17) or obvious acne or alopecia (18) or an elevated total testosterone (normal

Open access

Shenglong Le, Leiting Xu, Moritz Schumann, Na Wu, Timo Törmäkangas, Markku Alén, Sulin Cheng, and Petri Wiklund

centrifugation and stored immediately at −80°C until analysis. The samples from different time points were analyzed by one technician using the same kits and instrument. Estradiol (E2), testosterone and SHBG were determined by ELISA (NovaTec Immunodiagnostica

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Jana Ernst, Katharina Gert, Frank Bernhard Kraus, Ulrike Elisabeth Rolle-Kampczyk, Martin Wabitsch, Faramarz Dehghani, and Kristina Schaedlich

well as the active androgen testosterone, being the most abundant in the circulation ( 9 ). However, it has also been hypothesized that a further and substantial contributor to androgen production is adipose tissue ( 10 ). Besides the body’s own

Open access

Xingyan Liu, Mei Xu, Min Qian, and Lindong Yang

genotype) and outcome measurement data (serum testosterone levels in total and different genotype, BMI). Furthermore, the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test was also calculated manually. The characteristics of studies are summarized in Table 1

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Signe Frøssing, Malin Nylander, Caroline Kistorp, Sven O Skouby, and Jens Faber

testosterone was analyzed with mass spectroscopy (Waters UPLC-TQS LC–MS/MS system, Milford, USA), inter-assay CV 10%. Free testosterone was calculated from total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG was analyzed with a sandwich

Open access

Ja Hye Kim, Yunha Choi, Soojin Hwang, Ji-Hee Yoon, Jieun Lee, Min Jae Kang, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo, and Jin-Ho Choi

incomplete pubertal development by the age of 17 years in females and 18 years in males; (ii) serum testosterone levels of <1.0 ng/mL in males or serum estradiol levels of <20 pg/mL in females with low or normal levels of gonadotropin; (iii) normalcy in other

Open access

Annette Mouritsen, Alexander Siegfried Busch, Lise Aksglaede, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, and Anders Juul

Introduction Testosterone (T) promotes maturation of the male reproductive organs, development of secondary sex characteristics and production of sperm by the testes. In puberty in boys, pulsatile gonadotropin stimulation upon reactivation of