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Giorgio Radetti, Mariacarolina Salerno, Chiara Guzzetti, Marco Cappa, Andrea Corrias, Alessandra Cassio, Graziano Cesaretti, Roberto Gastaldi, Mario Rotondi, Fiorenzo Lupi, Antonio Fanolla, Giovanna Weber, and Sandro Loche

Introduction Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a frequent autoimmune disease that may present with a spectrum of altered thyroid function ranging from thyrotoxicosis to overt hypothyroidism. Treatment with l -thyroxine ( l -T4) is commonly

Open access

Nese Cinar and Alper Gurlek

/hyperthyroid animals, concerning the association between ADP levels and thyroid hormones. Hypothyroid rats have either increased or unchanged serum ADP levels, while unchanged or increased serum ADP levels are found in hyperthyroid rats (18, 19) . This might be due to

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Ewa Stogowska, Karol Adam Kamiński, Bartosz Ziółko, and Irina Kowalska

, named, respectively, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. The primary hypothyroidism is a result of thyroid hormone deficiency with the simultaneous correct hypothalamus–pituitary axis function and its prevalence is calculated as around 3–5% in the

Open access

Jia Liu, Min Liu, Zhe Chen, Yumei Jia, and Guang Wang

overt hypothyroidism ( 1 , 2 ). Ultrasound examination is a major imaging detection technique for thyroid diseases and often shows a diffuse hypoechoic or heterogeneous thyroid in AIT patients. However, it is difficult for ultrasound examination to

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Selma Flora Nordqvist, Victor Brun Boesen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Laszlo Hegedüs, Steen Joop Bonnema, Per Karkov Cramon, Torquil Watt, Mogens Groenvold, and Jakob Bue Bjorner

)  Autoimmune hypothyroidism 86 (20)  Other thyroid diagnoses 18 (4) Disease duration (months) 0.3 (0–4) Treatment instituted  Levothyroxine 111 (26)  Antithyroid medication 86 (20)  Aspiration of thyroid cyst 4

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Melinda Kertész, Szilárd Kun, Eszter Sélley, Zsuzsanna Nagy, Tamás Kőszegi, and István Wittmann

study, the association of subclinical hypothyroidism and complications of type 2 diabetes was proved ( 11 ). Recently, an increased prevalence of nodular thyroid disease in metabolic syndrome has been detected ( 12 ). Moreover, high T3 may predict

Open access

John E M Midgley, Rolf Larisch, Johannes W Dietrich, and Rudolf Hoermann

hypothyroidism that require thyroid hormone replacement (2, 3) . This is mainly done by administration of synthetic levothyroxine ( l -T 4 ), which is a well-established, convenient, safe and inexpensive treatment modality (4, 5) . However, this does not

Open access

Sarah Christine Sentis, Rebecca Oelkrug, and Jens Mittag

hormone levels. During mild hypo- or hyperthyroidism, brown fat thermogenesis is adjusted to compensate for the change in obligatory thermogenesis and/or heat loss. In strong hypothyroidism, brown fat function fails entirely. In strong hyperthyroidism, the

Open access

Marcus Heldmann, Krishna Chatterjee, Carla Moran, Berenike Rogge, Julia Steinhardt, Tobias Wagner-Altendorf, Martin Göttlich, Hannes Schacht, Peter Schramm, Georg Brabant, Thomas F Münte, and Anna Cirkel

hypothyroidism (i.e. growth retardation, learning difficulty, developmental delay in children, hearing impairment, nystagmus) and symptoms of hyperthyroidism (i.e. tachycardia, hyperactivity, high basal metabolic rate) ( 3 ). Subjects with homozygous mutations in

Open access

Mírian Romitti, Vitor C Fabris, Patricia K Ziegelmann, Ana Luiza Maia, and Poli Mara Spritzer

(TPOAbs) and/or thyroglobulin (TgAbs) antibodies, with a typical hypoechogenic pattern at ultrasonography ( 27 , 28 ). AITD is regarded as the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism in young women. Nevertheless, detectable antibodies may be observed for