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Melinda Kertész, Szilárd Kun, Eszter Sélley, Zsuzsanna Nagy, Tamás Kőszegi, and István Wittmann

study, the association of subclinical hypothyroidism and complications of type 2 diabetes was proved ( 11 ). Recently, an increased prevalence of nodular thyroid disease in metabolic syndrome has been detected ( 12 ). Moreover, high T3 may predict

Open access

John E M Midgley, Rolf Larisch, Johannes W Dietrich, and Rudolf Hoermann

hypothyroidism that require thyroid hormone replacement (2, 3) . This is mainly done by administration of synthetic levothyroxine ( l -T 4 ), which is a well-established, convenient, safe and inexpensive treatment modality (4, 5) . However, this does not

Open access

Sarah Christine Sentis, Rebecca Oelkrug, and Jens Mittag

hormone levels. During mild hypo- or hyperthyroidism, brown fat thermogenesis is adjusted to compensate for the change in obligatory thermogenesis and/or heat loss. In strong hypothyroidism, brown fat function fails entirely. In strong hyperthyroidism, the

Open access

Mírian Romitti, Vitor C Fabris, Patricia K Ziegelmann, Ana Luiza Maia, and Poli Mara Spritzer

(TPOAbs) and/or thyroglobulin (TgAbs) antibodies, with a typical hypoechogenic pattern at ultrasonography ( 27 , 28 ). AITD is regarded as the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism in young women. Nevertheless, detectable antibodies may be observed for

Open access

Marcus Heldmann, Krishna Chatterjee, Carla Moran, Berenike Rogge, Julia Steinhardt, Tobias Wagner-Altendorf, Martin Göttlich, Hannes Schacht, Peter Schramm, Georg Brabant, Thomas F Münte, and Anna Cirkel

hypothyroidism (i.e. growth retardation, learning difficulty, developmental delay in children, hearing impairment, nystagmus) and symptoms of hyperthyroidism (i.e. tachycardia, hyperactivity, high basal metabolic rate) ( 3 ). Subjects with homozygous mutations in

Open access

Athanasios Zervas, George Chrousos, and Sarantis Livadas

retardation, etc.) • Rheumatological (chronic juvenile arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc.)   Endocrine diseases • Growth hormone/IGF-1 deficiency or insensitivity • Hypothyroidism • Hypercortisolism • Precocious puberty

Open access

Josephina G Kuiper, Aline C Fenneman, Anne H van der Spek, Elena Rampanelli, Max Nieuwdorp, Myrthe P P van Herk-Sukel, Valery E P P Lemmens, Ernst J Kuipers, Ron M C Herings, and Eric Fliers

Introduction Primary hypothyroidism is a common condition with a rapidly rising global prevalence. In the Netherlands, the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism has increased from 0.4 to 2.9% over the past 15 years ( 1 ) ( www

Open access

Marek Niedziela

drugs (ATDs) does not prevent relapse of this disease. Hashitoxicosis in its natural course switches to permanent hypothyroidism, usually over a few weeks/months. However , one should remember that hashitoxicosis can be recurrent. The clinical

Open access

Enrique Soto-Pedre, Paul J Newey, John S Bevan, and Graham P Leese

. Hyperprolactinaemia can be physiological, pathological or iatrogenic, and the causes of non-physiological hyperprolactinaemia include pituitary disorders, drugs (most commonly antipsychotic agents) and hypothyroidism; aside from these, idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia

Open access

Xin He, Qin Yan, Chazhen Liu, Zhengyuan Wang, Ping Liao, Tong Liu, Zehuan Shi, Qi Song, Xueying Cui, Wenjing Wang, and Jiajie Zang

gestational age ( 10 , 11 ). Overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism have a high risk of light birth weight or SGA births ( 11 ). Mild thyroid dysfunction, which is more prevalent than overt hypothyroidism, is associated with SGA and LGA according to some