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Shilpa Lingaiah, Laure Morin-Papunen, Terhi Piltonen, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, and Juha S Tapanainen

-mass spectrometry and chemiluminometric immunoassay, respectively, at Nordlab, Oulu, as reported earlier ( 26 ). The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated as testosterone/SHBG (both as nmol/L) × 100. Mean OGTT plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were

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L Ghataore, I Chakraborti, S J Aylwin, K-M Schulte, D Dworakowska, P Coskeran, and N F Taylor

testosterone, so that hypogonadal males might require additional androgen supplementation. Urinary steroid profile results obtained during monitoring for identified markers of ACC activity in patients after surgery can be appropriately interpreted in the light

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Manjeetkaur Sehemby, Prachi Bansal, Vijaya Sarathi, Ashwini Kolhe, Kanchan Kothari, Swati Jadhav-Ramteke, Anurag R Lila, Tushar Bandgar, and Nalini S Shah

atrophy) were present in all patients. Hence, in any PCOS woman presence of one of these features should raise the clinical suspicion for VOT. Rapid onset and progression of hirsutism is a typical presentation of ovarian or adrenal androgen

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Doron Weinstein, Rive Sarfstein, Zvi Laron, and Haim Werner

involved in the mediation of IGF1 signals, and the androgen receptor (AR), a key element in prostate gland function. In recent years, the IGF1R has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancers, including prostate tumors. The clinical and metabolic

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Cecilia Lundin, Agota Malmborg, Julia Slezak, Kristina Gemzell Danielsson, Marie Bixo, Hanna Bengtsdotter, Lena Marions, Ingela Lindh, Elvar Theodorsson, Mats Hammar, and Inger Sundström-Poromaa

. Receptors for sex steroid hormones have widespread expression in genital tissues and the brain, and sex hormones are thought to play a role in female sexuality ( 6 ). While no clear-cut relationship between androgen levels and sexual desire has been

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Jülide Durmuşoğlu, Henri J L M Timmers, Pepijn van Houten, Johan F Langenhuijsen, Ad R M M Hermus, and Annenienke C van de Ven

rates of ACC after resection are high ( 6 , 8 ). ACC may be classified as functional (hormone-secreting) or nonfunctional. Functional adrenal tumors of the cortex can produce cortisol, androgens, estrogens and aldosterone. A functional ACC can cause

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Nafiye Helvaci, Erdem Karabulut, Ahmet Ugur Demir, and Bulent Okan Yildiz

agreement that the diagnosis of PCOS requires the presence of at least two of the following three abnormalities: chronic anovulation, elevated levels of serum androgens or clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries on ultrasonography

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Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Marsida Hutka, and Rod T Mitchell

, androgen action through Sertoli cells has been shown to be required for fertility in mice, and responsiveness to androgens requires the presence of the androgen receptor (AR). Knockout of AR specifically in Sertoli cells of mice results in azoospermia and

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Richard J Auchus

related to hormone doping, including infertility and cardiovascular events with androgens ( 4 , 5 ); edema and glucose intolerance for rhGH ( 6 ); atrial or ventricular fibrillation for thyroid hormones ( 7 ); the litany of adverse effects from

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Agnieszka Adamska, Aleksandra Maria Polak, Anna Krentowska, Agnieszka Łebkowska, Justyna Hryniewicka, Monika Leśniewska, and Irina Kowalska

-induced diseases), thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism), morbid obesity, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia; other causes of irregular menstrual cycles and/or androgen excess (i.e., hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s syndrome, late-onset congenital