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Doron Weinstein, Rive Sarfstein, Zvi Laron, and Haim Werner

involved in the mediation of IGF1 signals, and the androgen receptor (AR), a key element in prostate gland function. In recent years, the IGF1R has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancers, including prostate tumors. The clinical and metabolic

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Cecilia Lundin, Agota Malmborg, Julia Slezak, Kristina Gemzell Danielsson, Marie Bixo, Hanna Bengtsdotter, Lena Marions, Ingela Lindh, Elvar Theodorsson, Mats Hammar, and Inger Sundström-Poromaa

. Receptors for sex steroid hormones have widespread expression in genital tissues and the brain, and sex hormones are thought to play a role in female sexuality ( 6 ). While no clear-cut relationship between androgen levels and sexual desire has been

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Jülide Durmuşoğlu, Henri J L M Timmers, Pepijn van Houten, Johan F Langenhuijsen, Ad R M M Hermus, and Annenienke C van de Ven

rates of ACC after resection are high ( 6 , 8 ). ACC may be classified as functional (hormone-secreting) or nonfunctional. Functional adrenal tumors of the cortex can produce cortisol, androgens, estrogens and aldosterone. A functional ACC can cause

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Nafiye Helvaci, Erdem Karabulut, Ahmet Ugur Demir, and Bulent Okan Yildiz

agreement that the diagnosis of PCOS requires the presence of at least two of the following three abnormalities: chronic anovulation, elevated levels of serum androgens or clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries on ultrasonography

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Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Marsida Hutka, and Rod T Mitchell

, androgen action through Sertoli cells has been shown to be required for fertility in mice, and responsiveness to androgens requires the presence of the androgen receptor (AR). Knockout of AR specifically in Sertoli cells of mice results in azoospermia and

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Agnieszka Adamska, Aleksandra Maria Polak, Anna Krentowska, Agnieszka Łebkowska, Justyna Hryniewicka, Monika Leśniewska, and Irina Kowalska

-induced diseases), thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism), morbid obesity, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia; other causes of irregular menstrual cycles and/or androgen excess (i.e., hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s syndrome, late-onset congenital

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Richard J Auchus

related to hormone doping, including infertility and cardiovascular events with androgens ( 4 , 5 ); edema and glucose intolerance for rhGH ( 6 ); atrial or ventricular fibrillation for thyroid hormones ( 7 ); the litany of adverse effects from

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Rossella Cannarella, Andrea Crafa, Sandro La Vignera, Rosita A Condorelli, and Aldo E Calogero

onset of side effects or the auxological parameters Serum gonadotropin, androgens, insulin, IGF1, testicular volume, penile size Ben-Amitai & Laron 2011 (21) Longitudinal interventional 10 (8 untreated, 2 treated) 0–5 (at enrollment) Long

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Qiuli Liu, Lin-ang Wang, Jian Su, Dali Tong, Weihua Lan, Luofu Wang, Gaolei Liu, Jun Zhang, Victor Wei Zhang, Dianzheng Zhang, Rongrong Chen, Qingyi Zhu, and Jun Jiang

, as well as severe adrenal-derived androgen excess, resulting in the virialized external genitalia of newborn girls. Compared to CYP21A2-related disorders, CYP17A1 deficiency is rare. The CYP17 gene is located on chromosome 10q24-q25 and encodes 17α

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André Marques-Pinto and Davide Carvalho

oestrogenic/anti-androgenic activity that act by interfering with the oestrogen receptors (ER) or the androgen receptor (AR) (see Table 1 ). Table 1 Reported agonist and antagonist binding of several ED to ER and AR. ED ER agonism ER antagonism AR agonism AR