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T Szarvas, B Jardin-Watelet, N Bourgoin, M J Hoffmann, P Nyirády, C Oláh, T Széll, A Csizmarik, B Hadaschik, and H Reis

tumors. According to The Human Protein Atlas, non-neoplastic tissues of pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract, especially stomach, duodenum, small intestine and rectum express moderate levels of CGA. Accordingly, elevated sCGA levels were detected in

Open access

Linfei Yang, Xiao Yu, and Yongchao Yang

( 5 , 6 ). ATX was initially identified as an autocrine motility factor in human melanoma cells, and it is endogenously expressed in multiple tissues such as the ovary, intestine, kidney, prostate, testis, colon and lung ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). Proper

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Gaëtan Prévost, Marie Picot, Marie-Anne Le Solliec, Arnaud Arabo, Hind Berrahmoune, Mouna El Mehdi, Saloua Cherifi, Alexandre Benani, Emmanuelle Nédélec, Françoise Gobet, Valéry Brunel, Jérôme Leprince, Hervé Lefebvre, Youssef Anouar, and Nicolas Chartrel

Introduction Glucose homeostasis is a crucial parameter to maintain normal body function. Control of blood glucose levels is ensured by a highly sophisticated network of various hormones released by the pancreas, intestine, liver, adipose and

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Tomás P Griffin, Caroline M Joyce, Sumaya Alkanderi, Liam M Blake, Derek T O’Keeffe, Delia Bogdanet, Md Nahidul Islam, Michael C Dennedy, John E Gillan, John J Morrison, Timothy O’Brien, John A Sayer, Marcia Bell, and Paula M O’Shea

of pregnancy. In addition, the absorption of calcium from the intestine more than doubles and bone resorption occurs to provide calcium for breast milk ( 27 ). Hypercalcaemia is exacerbated in pregnant women with inactivating CYP24A1 mutations and

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Charlotte Janus, Dorte Vistisen, Hanan Amadid, Daniel R Witte, Torsten Lauritzen, Søren Brage, Anne-Louise Bjerregaard, Torben Hansen, Jens J Holst, Marit E Jørgensen, Oluf Pedersen, Kristine Færch, and Signe S Torekov

) that is secreted into the capillaries draining the small intestine. However, active GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) to form the GLP-1 metabolite (9-36NH2) and therefore only approximately 8% of the GLP-1 that was secreted may

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Shatha Alharazy, M Denise Robertson, Susan Lanham-New, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Adeel G Chaudhary, and Eman Alissa

intestines, suppresses the production of parathyroid hormone (PTH), and enhances the renal tubular absorption of Ca and mobilization of Ca and PO 4 from bone ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). Vitamin D is not only vital for skeletal health but also involved in several

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Salman Razvi, Sanaa Mrabeti, and Markus Luster

the intestine, and intestinal disorders may influence the absorption of LT4 and thus the dosage required to control the TSH level ( 79 ). For example, one study showed that people with ulcerative colitis and hypothyroidism required doses of LT4 that

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Monia Cito, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti, and Valeria Sordi

, 75 ). Gastrointestinal-to-β Gastrointestinal tissues, composed by stomach and intestine, harbor NGN3 -expressing progenitor cells able to become hormone-producing cells ( 76 ). Over the last decade, several evidences have demonstrated that

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K Amrein, A Papinutti, E Mathew, G Vila, and D Parekh

intestine and kidney. Mechanism of action involve 1,25(OH)2D3, FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23 – phosphaturic hormone produced in osteoblasts) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) via the PTH axis ( 84 ) Vitamin D, rather than a vitamin or just a food

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Kjell Oberg, Eric Krenning, Anders Sundin, Lisa Bodei, Mark Kidd, Margot Tesselaar, Valentina Ambrosini, Richard P Baum, Matthew Kulke, Marianne Pavel, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Ignat Drozdov, Massimo Falconi, Nicola Fazio, Andrea Frilling, Robert Jensen, Klaus Koopmans, Tiny Korse, Dik Kwekkeboom, Helmut Maecke, Giovanni Paganelli, Ramon Salazar, Stefano Severi, Jonathan Strosberg, Vikas Prasad, Aldo Scarpa, Ashley Grossman, Annemeik Walenkamp, Mauro Cives, Irene Virgolini, Andreas Kjaer, and Irvin M Modlin

R The genomic landscape of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors . Journal of Clinical Investigation 2013 15 . ( doi:10.1172/jci67963 ) 40 Jiao Y Shi C Edil BH de Wilde RF Klimstra DS Maitra A Schulick RD Tang