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Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska, Agnieszka Nikołajuk, Radosław Majewski, Remigiusz Filarski, Magdalena Stefanowicz, Natalia Matulewicz, and Marek Strączkowski

Introduction Obesity predisposes to the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, several types of cancer and other disorders. Insulin resistance is a major pathophysiological link between obesity and its

Open access

Frederique Van de Velde, Marlies Bekaert, Anja Geerts, Anne Hoorens, Arsène-Hélène Batens, Samyah Shadid, Margriet Ouwens, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, and Bruno Lapauw

methods are NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) and Steatosis, Activity, and Fibrosis (SAF) score ( 3 ). Importantly, patients with obesity who develop NAFLD are also more prone to develop other metabolic consequences of obesity such as insulin resistance (IR

Open access

Vita Birzniece, Teresa Lam, Mark McLean, Navneeta Reddy, Haleh Shahidipour, Amy Hayden, Howard Gurney, Glenn Stone, Rikke Hjortebjerg, and Jan Frystyk

hypogonadism, it is associated with the development of obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and increased cardiovascular disease risk ( 1 , 2 ). The metabolic syndrome is present in >50% of men receiving long-term ADT compared to 20% of matched

Open access

Karim Gariani, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider, and François R Jornayvaz

(TG) level, increased insulin resistance (IR) and a higher fasting plasma glucose ( 5 ). Patients with T2DM may exhibit evidence of subclinical hypercortisolism such as higher 24-h urine-free cortisol levels, higher plasma cortisol levels after

Open access

Julia Modesto Vicente, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Caio Jordão Teixeira, Dailson Nogueira de Souza, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Fabiola Sales Furtuoso, Isabel Gouveia Adabo, Fabio Takeo Sato, Marco Aurélio Ramirez Vinolo, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Silvana Bordin, and Gabriel Forato Anhê

). Additional prospective data revealed that exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months presented increased insulin sensitivity as assessed by HOMA-IR index 3 years after delivery rather than increased pancreatic β-cell function as indicated by in vivo

Open access

Melinda Kertész, Szilárd Kun, Eszter Sélley, Zsuzsanna Nagy, Tamás Kőszegi, and István Wittmann

Introduction Insulin resistance related to glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity is a well-described phenomenon ( 1 , 2 ). It is also known that in insulin-resistant patients other hormonal resistance may occur (e.g. resistance to leptin and FSH ( 3

Open access

Clemens Kamrath, Alexander Eckert, Birgit Rami-Merhar, Sebastian Kummer, Martin Wabitsch, Katharina Laubner, Florian Kopp, Silvia Müther, Steffen Mühldorfer, and Reinhard W Holl

Introduction Diabetes mellitus due to insulin resistance is among the most prevalent endocrine disorders. It is commonly associated with obesity and lifestyle factors but may also occur in a very rare and severe form in patients with defects

Open access

Rongpeng Gong, Gang Luo, Mingxiang Wang, Lingbo Ma, Shengnan Sun, and Xiaoxing Wei

Background Insulin resistance (IR) is the insensitivity to insulin in insulin-dependent organs and tissues ( 1 ). The clinical manifestation of IR is the failure to respond to increase in blood sugar, which is associated with metabolic

Open access

Monika Bilic, Huma Qamar, Akpevwe Onoyovwi, Jill Korsiak, Eszter Papp, Abdullah Al Mahmud, Rosanna Weksberg, Alison D Gernand, Jennifer Harrington, and Daniel E Roth

improve growth-related outcomes. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis includes several signal and binding proteins, many of which are under the regulation of growth hormone. IGF-I is the primary regulator of fetal growth, and its circulating

Open access

Chenmin Wei, Zichen Zhang, Qi Fu, Yunqiang He, Tao Yang, and Min Sun

and decreased insulin biosynthesis and secretion) ( 1 , 2 ). Of these factors, ER and oxidative stress are well known to affect receptor‐signal transduction, gene expression, and ion channel transport and induce cell apoptosis and death ( 3 ). The