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Elvira C Arellanes-Licea, José Ávila-Mendoza, Elizabeth C Ramírez-Martínez, Eugenia Ramos, Nancy Uribe-González, Carlos Arámburo, Teresa Morales, and Maricela Luna

( 7 ) in sensitive zones with high glutamate receptor concentration such as the hippocampus ( 8 , 9 ). Lactation is characterized by fluctuation of several hormones including growth hormone (GH) ( 10 ). GH is secreted mainly by the anterior

Open access

M L M Barreto-Chaves, N Senger, M R Fevereiro, A C Parletta, and A P C Takano

Introduction Thyroid hormones (TH) have a significant impact on the entire organism. However, it has been well documented that the heart is the main and the most important target of TH actions. Thus, variations in TH circulating levels are

Open access

Willem de Ronde and Diederik L Smit

, additional adverse health effects can be expected. Similar to AAS, most of these products are illegally obtained and their quality should be questioned. Moreover, scientific evidence supporting the claimed effects is mostly absent. Human growth hormone is

Open access

Julie M Silverstein

associated with acromegaly are a consequence of the chronic overproduction of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) (1, 8) . Systemic complications commonly associated with the chronic hypersecretion of GH and IGF1 include visceromegaly

Open access

Karim Gariani and François R Jornayvaz

) - Pituitary gland (TSH) - Thyroid gland (free T4) - Primary hypothyroidism (thyroid disease) - Secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary (TSH) or hypothalamic disease (TRH)) Growth hormone (GH) - Pituitary gland (GH) - Ectopic secretion - Acromegaly

Open access

Mirjana Doknic, Marko Stojanovic, Ivan Soldatovic, Tatjana Milenkovic, Vera Zdravkovic, Maja Jesic, Sladjana Todorovic, Katarina Mitrovic, Rade Vukovic, Dragana Miljic, Dragan Savic, Mihajlo Milicevic, Aleksandar Stanimirovic, Vojislav Bogosavljevic, Sandra Pekic, Emilija Manojlovic-Gacic, Aleksandar Djukic, Danica Grujicic, and Milan Petakov

Introduction Patients with childhood-onset GH deficiency (COGHD) represent a heterogeneous group in terms of etiology of growth hormone deficiency (GHD), time of GHD onset and recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement commencement, duration

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Adrian F Daly, Liliya Rostomyan, Daniela Betea, Jean-François Bonneville, Chiara Villa, Natalia S Pellegata, Beatrice Waser, Jean-Claude Reubi, Catherine Waeber Stephan, Emanuel Christ, and Albert Beckers

Introduction Acromegaly is a rare, classical endocrine disorder that is due to chronic excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) that has a prevalence of 1 in 8000–14,000 of the population ( 1 , 2 , 3

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Jose M Garcia, Beverly M K Biller, Márta Korbonits, Vera Popovic, Anton Luger, Christian J Strasburger, Philippe Chanson, Ronald Swerdloff, Christina Wang, Rosa Rosanna Fleming, Fredric Cohen, Nicola Ammer, Gilbert Mueller, Nicky Kelepouris, Frank Strobl, Vlady Ostrow, and Kevin C J Yuen

Introduction Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by abnormal body composition, unfavorable cardiovascular risk, cardiac dysfunction, decreased bone mineral density, and glucose intolerance ( 1 , 2

Open access

Nadine M Vaninetti, David B Clarke, Deborah A Zwicker, Churn-Ern Yip, Barna Tugwell, Steve Doucette, Chris Theriault, Khaled Aldahmani, and Syed Ali Imran

the following inclusion criteria: i) seen between January 1, 2006, and June 30, 2014; ii) have any of the following diagnoses: non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFA), prolactinoma (PRLoma), growth hormone-producing adenoma (GH adenoma

Open access

Ja Hye Kim, Yunha Choi, Soojin Hwang, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo, and Jin-Ho Choi

-associated feeding difficulties, cardiac anomalies, and deficiencies in growth hormone (GH) or combined pituitary hormone ( 8 , 13 ). GH deficiency occurred at a frequency of 10–34% ( 11 , 14 , 15 , 16 ), and previous studies reported structural abnormalities of