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Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos, and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) represents only around 10% of the diabetes cases worldwide, but occurs with increasing incidence much earlier in life. T1DM results from the autoimmune destruction of β cells of the endocrine

Open access

Espen Nordheim and Trond Geir Jenssen

Introduction Diabetes mellitus is among the leading causes of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease in the western world. It was the most common diagnosis for the initiation of renal replacement therapy in the United States in

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Alexis Sudlow, Carel W le Roux, and Dimitri J Pournaras

loss, weight loss maintenance and control of co-morbidity, particularly type two diabetes (T2DM) ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ). Bariatric surgery has been demonstrated as a powerful tool in the treatment of obesity

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Xiuzhen Hou, Junfeng Zhang, Hehong Ma, Ming Li, and Pei Wang

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is primarily resulted from insulin resistance and glucose intolerance during pregnancy, affecting 7% of pregnant women globally ( 1 , 2 ). GDM causes higher risks of diabetes, obesity and

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Emanuela Zaharieva, Zdravko Kamenov, Tsvetelina Velikova, Adelina Tsakova, Yosif El-Darawish, and Haruki Okamura

helper immune response ( 3 , 4 ). Apart from its place in immune defense against infective pathogens, IL-18 participates in the pathogenesis of atopic, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases ( 3 , 4 ). Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been

Open access

Alice S Ryan, John C McLenithan, and Gretchen M Zietowski

Introduction Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within 5 years following pregnancy (1, 2) with the reported incidence of T2DM ranging from

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Antonia Ertelt, Ann-Kristin Barton, Robert R Schmitz, and Heidrun Gehlen

bodyweight and includes omental, mesenteric, and perirenal fat. Visceral fat surrounds internal organs (viscera) and is often used as a synonym for intra-abdominal fat (23) . According to the definition of HMS corresponding to the International Diabetes

Open access

Chenmin Wei, Zichen Zhang, Qi Fu, Yunqiang He, Tao Yang, and Min Sun

expression and function of receptors such as calcium-sensing receptor ( 4 ), glucose transporter proteins ( 5 ), and G protein-coupled receptor ( 6 ) are related to β cell dysfunction. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is also linked to deficiencies in the proteins

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Wouter W de Herder

International Congress of Endocrinology’ in Copenhagen (Denmark). Houssay's main contribution was on the experimental investigation of the role of the anterior pituitary in the metabolism of carbohydrates, particularly in diabetes mellitus. He demonstrated the

Open access

Jyotsna S Jagai, Alison K Krajewski, Kyla N Price, Danelle T Lobdell, and Robert M Sargis

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a devastating metabolic disease that contributes significantly to individual and societal morbidity and mortality. In 2018, 34.2 million people, approximately 10.5% of the United States (US) population