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Line Tang Møllehave, Marie Holm Eliasen, Ieva Strēle, Allan Linneberg, Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes, Ludmila B Ivanova, Zvonko Kusić, Iris Erlund, Till Ittermann, Endre V Nagy, Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir, Jonathan Eli Arbelle, Aaron Milton Troen, Valdis Pīrāgs, Lisbeth Dahl, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Malgorzata Trofimiuk-Müldner, João Jacome de Castro, Mafalda Marcelino, Simona Gaberšček, Katja Zaltel, Manuel Puig-Domingo, Lluis Vila, Sofia Manousou, Helena Filipsson Nyström, Michael Bruce Zimmermann, Karen R Mullan, Jayne Valerie Woodside, Henry Völzke, and Betina Heinsbæk Thuesen

risk of hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders in a population ( 9 ). Most regions of Europe will be iodine deficient without programs to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). However, the implementation and type of IDD prevention

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Xi Cao, Ming Lu, Rong-Rong Xie, Li-Ni Song, Wei-Li Yang, Zhong Xin, Guang-Ran Yang, and Jin-Kui Yang

population ( 6 ). Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), which is characterized by elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), has attracted increasing attention, as it interacts with many metabolic diseases ( 7 , 8 ). Thyroid hormones, including TSH, have been

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Clara Lundetoft Clausen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Trine Holm Johannsen, Linda Maria Hilsted, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Pal Bela Szecsi, Lise Pedersen, Thomas Benfield, and Anders Juul

alterations in the hormonal secretion from the thyroid gland ( 2 , 3 , 4 ). Studies have shown varying degrees of thyroid dysfunction among patients with COVID-19 infection with 5–20% being hyperthyroid and up to 5% being hypothyroid ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9

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Reem Al Argan, Abdulaziz Ramadhan, Ramanakumar V Agnihotram, Jeffrey Chankowsky, and Juan Rivera

, which results in secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) and central hypothyroidism (CHT). Untreated SAI and CHT may lead to life-threatening complications, particularly during stress. Additionally, their diagnosis often requires the use of dynamic

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Avinaash Maharaj, Ruth Kwong, Jack Williams, Christopher Smith, Helen Storr, Ruth Krone, Debora Braslavsky, Maria Clemente, Nanik Ram, Indraneel Banerjee, Semra Çetinkaya, Federica Buonocore, Tülay Güran, John C Achermann, Louise Metherell, and Rathi Prasad

hypothyroidism, primary gonadal insufficiency, lymphopenia and dyslipidaemia are reported, although not universally present in affected individuals ( Fig. 1 ). In its most severe form, the condition results in fetal hydrops. Morbidity is significant and mortality

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Xiaoya Zheng, Shanshan Yu, Jian Long, Qiang Wei, Liping Liu, Chun Liu, and Wei Ren

lymphoma occurred at the time of the first diagnosis ( 16 ). The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was defined as either having a decreased TSH value <0.56 µIU/mL or being treated with antithyroid drugs. The presence of hypothyroidism was defined as either

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Kathrin Zopf, Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Manfred Ventz, Britta Bauer, and Marcus Quinkler

.6 ( n  = 15) – ( n  = 0) Concomitant disease  Hypothyroidism 27/72 23/47 4/25  Diabetes mellitus 13/72 12/47 1/25  Primary ovarian failure 4/50 3/36 1/14  Asthma 5/72 1/47 4

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Christine Poitou, Anthony Holland, Charlotte Höybye, Laura C G de Graaff, Sandrine Bottius, Berit Otterlei, and Maithé Tauber

prevented  Growth hormone deficiency almost 100% in children and 50% in adults, SGA in 20%  Hypogonadism mixed > 60% (adult > 90%)  Cryptorchidism more than 90%  Premature or agressive adrenarche 30%  Hypothyroïdism 20

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Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska, Łukasz Kluczyński, and Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk

). Insufficiency of somatotropic axis is the most common abnormality, followed by presence of hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, and diabetes insipidus ( 14 , 15 , 16 ). Pituitary dysfunction after a traumatic brain injury is usually transient and may

Open access

Ghazala Zaidi, Vijayalakshmi Bhatia, Saroj K Sahoo, Aditya Narayan Sarangi, Niharika Bharti, Li Zhang, Liping Yu, Daniel Eriksson, Sophie Bensing, Olle Kämpe, Nisha Bharani, Surendra Kumar Yachha, Anil Bhansali, Alok Sachan, Vandana Jain, Nalini Shah, Rakesh Aggarwal, Amita Aggarwal, Muthuswamy Srinivasan, Sarita Agarwal, and Eesh Bhatia

initial clinical finding commonly included MCC (59%) or HP (27%), though presentation with PAI, AIH, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), hypothyroidism (HT) or diarrhoea was also noted ( Table 1 ). Of the patients with MCC and HP, 65% and 55%, respectively, were