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Annette Mouritsen, Alexander Siegfried Busch, Lise Aksglaede, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, and Anders Juul

the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis results in testicular enlargement >3 mL and secretion of T produced by the testicular Leydig cells (gonadarche). Furthermore, gradually increasing secretion of androgens including T produced by the adrenal glands

Open access

María J Gómora, Flavia Morales-Vásquez, Enrique Pedernera, Delia Perez-Montiel, Horacio López-Basave, Antonio R Villa, Azucena Hernández-Martínez, Esteban Mena, and Carmen Mendez

migration and invasiveness, which are essential in tumor progression ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ). The presence of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) plays an important role in the progression and treatment of

Open access

Mojca Jensterle, Nika Aleksandra Kravos, Simona Ferjan, Katja Goricar, Vita Dolzan, and Andrej Janez

glucose homeostasis resulted in significant treatment response after the first year, with weight loss, increased menstrual regularity and improved androgen profile. In majority of women that subsequently remained on therapy, an overall beneficial steady

Open access

Katarzyna Wyskida, Grzegorz Franik, Tomasz Wikarek, Aleksander Owczarek, Alham Delroba, Jerzy Chudek, Jerzy Sikora, and Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

secretion of some adipokines, while androgens exert an opposite effect ( 1 , 2 , 6 ). Additionally, it has been shown that some adipokines modulate reproductive functions, both indirectly by affecting the pituitary–ovary axis and directly by acting on

Open access

Vita Birzniece, Teresa Lam, Mark McLean, Navneeta Reddy, Haleh Shahidipour, Amy Hayden, Howard Gurney, Glenn Stone, Rikke Hjortebjerg, and Jan Frystyk

Introduction Prostate cancer is the most common solid organ cancer in men and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a principal therapy. While ADT improves cancer symptoms and survival in prostate cancer patients, because of the induced

Open access

Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Anne-Marie Coady, Eric S Kilpatrick, and Stephen L Atkin

–Gallwey score >8; free androgen index >8 respectively), oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhea and polycystic ovaries on transvaginal ultrasound ( 25 ). Subjects had no concurrent illness, were not on any medication for the preceding 6 months and were not planning to

Open access

Angela Köninger, Philippos Edimiris, Laura Koch, Antje Enekwe, Claudia Lamina, Sabine Kasimir-Bauer, Rainer Kimmig, and Hans Dieplinger

and leads to exaggerated androgen biosynthesis in patients with PCOS in a synergistic manner together with LH (10) . An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended in obese patients with PCOS, but further research is required to detect lean

Open access

Liza Haqq, James McFarlane, Gudrun Dieberg, and Neil Smart

resistance and hyperinsulinaemia, but these two features are also present in lean women with PCOS (5, 6) . Hormonal manifestations include elevated levels of androgens (testosterone, DHEA and androstenedione), oestrogens and prolactin. Occasionally, thyroid

Open access

Alexander Tacey, Lewan Parker, Bu B Yeap, John Joseph, Ee M Lim, Andrew Garnham, David L Hare, Tara Brennan-Speranza, and Itamar Levinger

suggesting alternative pathways are likely for the impairment of exercise capacity. Given the potential of androgen-glucocorticoid interactions and the role of hormonal regulation for exercise performance and adaptation ( 40 , 41 ), we explored the effects

Open access

Aneta Gawlik, Michael Shmoish, Michaela F Hartmann, Stefan A Wudy, Zbigniew Olczak, Katarzyna Gruszczynska, and Ze’ev Hochberg

-transformed concentrations of steroid metabolites (androgens, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids) in liver diseases (L1) and with non-liver disease features (L0) patients. Table 3 Ratio of steroid metabolites (enzyme activity): differences between patients