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Elizabeth Micks, Greta B Raglan, and Jay Schulkin

Introduction Progesterone, progestins, and progestogens Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone first identified and characterized by Willard Myron Allen in 1933. C-21 steroid hormones contain 21 carbons and are also referred to as pregnanes. This

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Nancy J Olsen, Ann L Benko, and William J Kovacs

Introduction Androgenic gonadal steroid hormones exert effects on both human autoimmune disease and the corresponding animal models. In an experimental mouse model of human systemic lupus erythematosus, females acquire fatal renal disease while

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Anette Lundqvist, Herbert Sandström, and Torbjörn Bäckström

energy homeostasis to modulate appetite in response to signals by blood-borne hormones and peptides from adipose tissue and gastrointestinal organs in a complicated process ( 13 , 40 ). Allopregnanolone is not a classical steroid hormone and does not

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Corina Verónica Sasso, Flavia Eliana Santiano, Fiorella Campo Verde Arboccó, Leila Ester Zyla, Silvana Noemí Semino, Martin Eduardo Guerrero-Gimenez, Virginia Pistone Creydt, Constanza Matilde López Fontana, and Rubén Walter Carón

40%, respectively, higher in men than in women ( 1 ). Since the Women’s Health Initiative in 1991 ( 2 ), and several epidemiological studies, the ovarian steroids were considered protectors against the development of CRC. Different studies in animal

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Maki Igarashi, Tadayuki Ayabe, Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Keiko Matsubara, Hatoko Sasaki, Mayako Saito-Abe, Miori Sato, Nathan Mise, Akihiko Ikegami, Masayuki Shimono, Reiko Suga, Shouichi Ohga, Masafumi Sanefuji, Masako Oda, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Takehiro Michikawa, Shin Yamazaki, Shoji Nakayama, Yukihiro Ohya, and Maki Fukami

years before developing physical signs, children undergo conspicuous changes in the blood levels of sex hormones. Usually, an increase in circulating adrenal steroids (‘adrenarche’) occurs at 7 or 8 years of age in children of both sexes ( 1 , 2 , 3

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M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra, and H J G Bilo

suggested to influence several extra-glycemic, metabolic, and endocrinological parameters, such as the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is a glycoprotein produced in the liver, which regulates the bioavailability of sex steroids for target tissues

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Martijn J J Finken, Aleid J G Wirix, Ines A von Rosenstiel-Jadoul, Bibian van der Voorn, Mai J M Chinapaw, Michaela F Hartmann, Joana E Kist-van Holthe, Stefan A Wudy, and Joost Rotteveel

development of obesity-associated hypertension requires various concerted steps that could result in an increased availability of bioactive glucocorticoids. Therefore, in the present study using targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) steroid

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Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

steroid biosynthesis and action, gonadotropic secretion and action, folliculogenesis, weight and energy regulation and insulin action ( 13 ). In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of the main genetic polymorphisms that were found or

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Carlo Cinque, Manuela Zinni, Anna Rita Zuena, Chiara Giuli, Sebastiano G Alemà, Assia Catalani, Paola Casolini, and Roberto Cozzolino

( 1 ). For ethical and experimental reasons, a growing number of researchers tend to use non-invasive techniques for steroid hormone level assessments in wild and captive vertebrates ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). Among the non-invasive matrices, the faeces are

Open access

Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, and Hiroshi Wachi

Introduction Sex steroids are important for the maintenance of healthy skin. Based on studies on older women, sex steroids in skin regulate the collagen content and the synthesis of hyaluronic acid ( 1 ). Estrogen-conjugated cream applied to