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María L Bacigalupo, Verónica G Piazza, Nadia S Cicconi, Pablo Carabias, Andrzej Bartke, Yimin Fang, Ana I Sotelo, Gabriel A Rabinovich, María F Troncoso, and Johanna G Miquet

Open access

Peter Wolf, Yvonne Winhofer, Martin Krššák, and Michael Krebs

-adrenergic receptor knock out mice could not confirm differences of thyroid hormone action compared to that in wild-type mice ( 62 ). Therefore, thyroid hormones might exert their effects on the heart also independently of adrenergic stimuli. Growth hormone

Open access

Robert Rapaport, Jan M Wit, and Martin O Savage

a sensitive marker of illness ( 2 ). Understanding the physiology of linear growth initially focused on the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis as the key regulatory process ( 3 ). However, the development of genetic studies

Open access

Chan Sub Park, Jihye Choi, Min-Ki Seong, Sung-Eun Hong, Jae-Sung Kim, In-Chul Park, Hyesil Seol, Woo Chul Noh, and Hyun-Ah Kim

Introduction Estradiol is a key factor for tumorigenesis and prognosis of hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Although estradiol is produced mainly by the ovary in premenopausal women, the adrenal gland and adipocytes are also

Open access

Kathryn L Gatford, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Lili Huang, Pamela Su-Lin Sim, Claire T Roberts, Johannes D Velhuis, and Chen Chen

Introduction Successful pregnancy requires major physiological adaptations in the mother to support pregnancy, and the attachment, implantation, growth and function of the placental interface between mother and foetus ( 1 ). Growth hormone (GH

Open access

Rossella Cannarella, Andrea Crafa, Sandro La Vignera, Rosita A Condorelli, and Aldo E Calogero

Introduction The acromegaly levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) that occur in healthy children in pubertal age have led to the speculation that this hormone may stimulate the function of the hypothalamus–pituitary–testicular (HPT

Open access

Izabelle Lövgren, Azadeh Abravan, Abigail Bryce-Atkinson, and Marcel van Herk

) from the thyroid gland. (B) Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) released from corticotropes in the pituitary gland acts on the suprarenal adrenal glands, stimulating release of cortisol. (C) Growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary acts on the liver to stimulate

Open access

Ekaterina Koledova, George Stoyanov, Leroy Ovbude, and Peter S W Davies

Introduction Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is approved for use in the treatment of children with various aetiologies, including growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) and born small for gestational age (SGA) with no

Open access

Jens F Rehfeld

Introduction The word hormone originates from the Greek word ’hormoa’. It was proposed by the British linguist WB Hardy and introduced by Ernest Starling in his Croonian Lectures published in ‘The Lancet’ in 1905 ( 1 ) – 3 years after his and

Open access

Brenda Anguiano, Carlos Montes de Oca, Evangelina Delgado-González, and Carmen Aceves

or thyroxine; TRAMP, transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate. TRH, thyrotropin releasing hormone; VEGFA, vascular endothelial growth factor; XIAP, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. Prostate pathologies Benign prostate