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V Kenan Çelik, Sercan Kapancık, Turgut Kaçan, Selen Baloglu Kaçan, Serkan Kapancık, and Hasan Kılıçgün

Introduction In the seventh Diabetes Atlas of 2015 of The International Diabetes Federation (IDF), it is reported that one person in every 6 seconds in the world died of diabetes, 1 in 7 births is affected by gestational diabetes, 1 in every

Open access

, Hiroshi Arima, Timothy Cheetham, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Deborah Cooper, Mark Gurnell, Juliana B Drummond, Miles Levy, Ann I McCormack, Joseph Verbalis, John Newell-Price, and John A H Wass

processes, leading to treatment errors and consequent adverse outcomes for patients. This last reason represents the major impetus to change the name of diabetes insipidus at this time. Historical context Before explaining the rationale for the name

Open access

Yael Sofer, Nava Nevo, Michal Vechoropoulos, Gabi Shefer, Etty Osher, Nathan Landis, Karen Tordjman, Geoffrey L Hammond, and Naftali Stern

cellular cascades after binding sex steroids ( 4 , 5 ). The relation between low SHBG levels and diabetes now appears well established, both in men and women ( 6 , 7 , 8 ) and remains significant even after adjustment for BMI ( 9 , 10 , 11 ) and

Open access

Wenrui Wang and Chuan Zhang

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an epidemic chronic disease characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis, leading to hyperglycemia and multiple complications such as cardiopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The prevalence

Open access

Bledar Daka, Thord Rosen, Per Anders Jansson, Lennart Råstam, Charlotte A Larsson, and Ulf Lindblad

Introduction Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a circulating plasma globulin binding sex hormones, both oestradiol and testosterone and is produced primarily by the liver. In two recent studies, SHBG could predict type 2 diabetes (T2D) in

Open access

Xiaohui Qi, Ping He, Huayan Yao, Huanhuan Sun, Jiying Qi, Min Cao, Bin Cui, and Guang Ning

than 6 per 100,000 inhabitants per year ( 3 , 4 ). In addition, some studies have shown that the prevalence of BTC among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is greatly increased ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ), but the exact mechanism is not clear. Studies have

Open access

Daiki Kobayashi, Nagato Kuriyama, Keita Hirano, Osamu Takahashi, and Hiroshi Noto

.40), hepatocellular carcinoma (HR: 1.97), pancreatic cancer (HR: 1.85) and cholangiocarcinoma (HR: 1.66) ( 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). Other malignancies, such as esophageal cancer, gastric cancer or lung cancer, may have no association with diabetes ( 9 , 10 , 11

Open access

Eliana Piantanida, Daniela Gallo, Giovanni Veronesi, Eugenia Dozio, Eugenia Trotti, Adriana Lai, Silvia Ippolito, Jessica Sabatino, Maria Laura Tanda, Antonio Toniolo, Marco Ferrario, and Luigi Bartalena

( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). These mechanisms may be protective for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) development, but are defective in vitamin D deficiency ( 6 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27

Open access

Bliss Anderson and Daniel L Morganstein

lifelong hormonal replacement. Untreated endocrinopathy can be life threatening. Whilst both CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors are associated most commonly with thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis resulting in adrenal insufficiency, and insulin-dependent diabetes

Open access

Xiaolei Hu and Fengling Chen

Introduction Since insulin was discovered by Banting and Best in the 1920s, it has been used for diabetes therapy and has achieved significant therapeutic effects. However, some immunological responses to exogenous insulin have been found ( 1