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Robert Rapaport, Peter A Lee, Judith L Ross, Paul Saenger, Vlady Ostrow, and Giuseppe Piccoli

Introduction Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is widely utilized for improving height in children with growth failure and conditions in which it is efficacious, including isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD

Open access

Juliane Léger, Anne Fjellestad-Paulsen, Anne Bargiacchi, Catherine Doyen, Emmanuel Ecosse, Jean-Claude Carel, and Marie-France Le Heuzey

low serum IGF-I levels ( 15 ) have been reported in patients with AN. However, studies of GH secretion in children have yielded conflicting results, with low, high or normal GH levels detected ( 16 , 17 ). The mechanism of GH resistance remains

Open access

Imane Benabbad, Myriam Rosilio, Maité Tauber, Emmanuel Paris, Anne Paulsen, Lovisa Berggren, Hiren Patel, Jean-Claude Carel, and the Phoenix Study Group

Introduction Children with height more than 2 standard deviations ( s.d. ) below the mean of a national reference population are considered to have idiopathic short stature (ISS) if the aetiology cannot be identified and disorders known to

Open access

B Fabre, G Maccallini, A Oneto, D Gonzalez, V Hirschler, C Aranda, and G Berg

(associated with carbohydrate intolerance), type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome in the population, particularly in children, all primarily due to changes in their lifestyle (5, 6, 7) . Insulin that is actively transported to the saliva from its

Open access

Jing Wang, Leishen Wang, Huikun Liu, Shuang Zhang, Junhong Leng, Weiqin Li, Tao Zhang, Nan Li, Wei Li, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou, and Gang Hu

-term effects on the growth and development of children with GDM mothers, there are conflicting findings in previous studies. In the Northwestern Diabetes in Pregnancy Study in Chicago, diabetes during pregnancy (GDM and preexistent diabetes) was positively

Open access

Nella Augusta Greggio, Elisa Rossi, Silvia Calabria, Alice Meneghin, Joaquin Gutierrez de Rubalcava, Carlo Piccinni, and Antonella Pedrini

the epidemiology of SH in children and pre-adolescents are scarce; however, the prevalence of SH in this population is estimated to be slightly lower than 2% ( 4 ). SH can have autoimmune or non-autoimmune origins. It can be distinguished between

Open access

R Perchard, L Magee, A Whatmore, F Ivison, P Murray, A Stevens, M Z Mughal, S Ehtisham, J Campbell, S Ainsworth, M Marshall, M Bone, I Doughty, and P E Clayton

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects 25,000 children and young adults in the United Kingdom ( 1 ). Intensive glycaemic control is crucial to avoid long-term complications ( 2 ) but only 18.4% are meeting the National Institute for Health

Open access

Nicola Tufton, Lucy Shapiro, Anju Sahdev, Ajith V Kumar, Lee Martin, William M Drake, Scott A Akker, and Helen L Storr

–80%). Therefore, it is recommended that all children and adolescents presenting with PPGL should be offered genetic testing ( 3 , 4 ). The most commonly associated genes in children presenting with PPGL (aged ≤21 years) are VHL (38%), followed by SDHB (25

Open access

Robert Rapaport, Jan M Wit, and Martin O Savage

.icped.org ) ( 6 ), short children born small for gestational age (SGA) is classified under primary growth disorders according to the absence of a known factor outside of the growth plate, and thus the expectation that the cause may reside in the growth plate

Open access

Aneta Gawlik, Michael Shmoish, Michaela F Hartmann, Stefan A Wudy, Zbigniew Olczak, Katarzyna Gruszczynska, and Ze’ev Hochberg

). NAFLD is regarded as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome ( 2 ). However, childhood obesity with no NAFLD is also complicated by the metabolic syndrome. Despite the growth of knowledge regarding obesity-related NAFLD in children, we still