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Jin Kyu Oh, Young Jae Im, Kwanjin Park, and Jae-Seung Paick

administration leads to premature termination of pubertal phallic growth. These observations were associated decreased androgen receptor (AR) expression levels before puberty, clearly due to the presence of exogenous testosterone. Moreover, effects on the growth

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Katica Bajuk Studen and Marija Pfeifer

(HR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.86 ± 2.66, P  < 0.001). The incidence of NAFLD increased with increasing androgen and decreasing SHBG levels ( 87 ). NAFLD is associated with increased mortality due to an increased risk from cardiometabolic complications and

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D A Dart, K Ashelford, and W G Jiang

Introduction Targeting the androgen receptor (AR) via AR-antagonist therapies is still the mainstay of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) treatments ( 1 , 2 ). AR antagonists, such as enzalutamide, flutamide and bicalutamide, target and

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Zofia Kolesinska, James Acierno Jr, S Faisal Ahmed, Cheng Xu, Karina Kapczuk, Anna Skorczyk-Werner, Hanna Mikos, Aleksandra Rojek, Andreas Massouras, Maciej R Krawczynski, Nelly Pitteloud, and Marek Niedziela

, achieving a definitive diagnosis is challenging, especially when associated with 46,XY karyotype ( 1 ). Indeed, with the exception of several conditions with well-defined phenotypes that point to a specific underlying genetic cause, i.e. complete androgen

Open access

T S Nilsen, L Thorsen, C Kirkegaard, I Ugelstad, S D Fosså, and T Raastad

Introduction Prostate cancer (PCa) patients with locally advanced disease are often treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to prevent tumour progression ( 1 ). Loss of skeletal muscle mass is a common side effect of ADT ( 2 , 3 , 4

Open access

Stine A Holmboe, Ravi Jasuja, Brian Lawney, Lærke Priskorn, Niels Joergensen, Allan Linneberg, Tina Kold Jensen, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Anders Juul, and Anna-Maria Andersson

(TT) is associated with androgen deficiency-related symptoms ( 5 , 6 ). Consequently, determining the free or bioavailable testosterone level has gained increasing interest over the years ( 7 ). Equilibrium dialysis is considered the gold standard

Open access

Valentina Guarnotta, Silvia Lucchese, Mariagrazia Irene Mineo, Donatella Mangione, Renato Venezia, Piero Luigi Almasio, and Carla Giordano

sometimes show PP ( 5 ). PCOS is characterized by a combination of signs and symptoms of androgen excess (hirsutism and/or hyperandrogenaemia) and ovarian dysfunction (oligo-ovulation) and/or polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) ( 6 ). The most severe

Open access

Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Bruna Barcelo Barbosa, José Maria Soares Junior, and Edmund Chada Baracat

, despite some controversy, it may vary among individuals and/or according to androgen levels ( 8 , 9 ). It was shown that PCOM becomes more prevalent after 20 years of age ( 10 ). Therefore, for adolescents, only ovarian volume is used ( 11 ). Regarding

Open access

Bilal B Mughal, Jean-Baptiste Fini, and Barbara A Demeneix

surprising as DDT binds to and activates ERs in both reproductive and other tissues including the brain ( 171 , 172 ). On the other hand, DDE has been shown to inhibit androgens from binding to their receptors ( 173 , 174 ). In adolescent boys, DDE is

Open access

M Axelstad, U Hass, M Scholze, S Christiansen, A Kortenkamp, and J Boberg

dams were included in each dose group, resulting in 14–20 viable litters per group. The dams received vehicle (controls) or one of the eight mixtures. These included 3 doses of total mixture (TotalMix100, TotalMix200, TotalMix450), 2 doses of anti-androgens