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Ping Li, Fei Cheng, and Lei Xiu

common feature of TS, untreated women are approximately 20–21 cm shorter than normal women within their respective populations ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been shown to increase growth and final height in

Open access

Charlotte Höybye, Laia Faseh, Christos Himonakos, Tomasz Pielak, and Jesper Eugen-Olsen

Introduction The adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) syndrome includes unfavourable levels of several well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as adverse body composition, cholesterol levels and inflammatory

Open access

Juliane Léger, Anne Fjellestad-Paulsen, Anne Bargiacchi, Catherine Doyen, Emmanuel Ecosse, Jean-Claude Carel, and Marie-France Le Heuzey

involving the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis, thyroid function, hypercortisolemia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and the levels of several adipokines and gut peptides, such as ghrelin and peptide YY ( 2 ). The

Open access

Caroline Culen, Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Katharina Schubert, Lisa Bartha-Doering, and Gabriele Haeusler

the various aspects of the diagnosis and treatment options ( 24 ). Experienced pediatric endocrinologists specialized in growth disorders should be involved in order to inform about the option of growth hormone (GH) therapy. The information provided

Open access

María Dolores Rodríguez Arnao, Amparo Rodríguez Sánchez, Ignacio Díez López, Joaquín Ramírez Fernández, Jose Antonio Bermúdez de la Vega, Diego Yeste Fernández, María Chueca Guindulain, Raquel Corripio Collado, Jacobo Pérez Sánchez, Ana Fernández González, and ECOS Spain Study Collaborative Investigator Group

Introduction Since the 60s, GH has been the mainstay of treatment for children with GH deficiency (GHD) ( 1 ). With the discovery of recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH), the treatment has been extended to other conditions, such as Turner

Open access

Kevin C J Yuen, Gudmundur Johannsson, Ken K Y Ho, Bradley S. Miller, Ignacio Bergada, and Alan D Rogol

Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a clinical syndrome that can manifest either as isolated or associated with additional pituitary hormone deficiencies. Although diminished height velocity and short stature are useful and important clinical markers to consider testing for GHD in children, the signs and symptoms of GHD are not always so apparent in adults. Quality of life and metabolic health are often impacted in patients with GHD; thus, making an accurate diagnosis is important so that appropriate GH replacement therapy can be offered to these patients. Screening and testing for GHD require sound clinical judgment that follows after obtaining a complete medical history of patients with a hypothalamic-pituitary disorder and thorough physical examination with specific features for each period of life, while targeted biochemical testing and imaging are required to confirm the diagnosis. Random measurements of serum GH levels are not recommended to screen for GHD (except in neonates) as endogenous GH secretion is episodic and pulsatile throughout the lifespan. One or more GH stimulation tests may be required, but existing methods of testing might be inaccurate, difficult to perform, and can be imprecise. Furthermore, there are multiple caveats when interpreting test results including individual patient factors, differences in peak GH cut-offs (by age and test), testing time points, and heterogeneity of GH and IGF-I assays. In this article, we provide a global overview of the accuracy and cut-offs for diagnosis of GHD in children and adults, and discuss the caveats in conducting and interpreting these tests.

Open access

Ichelle Maa van Roessel, Boudewijn Bakker, Hanneke M van Santen, and Wassim Chemaitilly

Introduction Endocrine disorders affect up to 60% of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) ( 1 ). Cancer, brain tumors and their treatments have been associated with a higher risk of deficiencies in growth hormone (GH), thyroid hormone and sex

Open access

Martin Bidlingmaier, Helena Gleeson, Ana-Claudia Latronico, and Martin O Savage

medicine practices and tools into transitional care for patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Data from the published literature on linear growth in children with GH deficiency, disorders of puberty, genetic analysis, paediatric adrenal tumours and

Open access

Régis Coutant, Maithé Tauber, Béatrice Demaret, Robin Henocque, Yves Brault, François Montestruc, Olivier Chassany, Michel Polak, and

Introduction Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) results in abnormal linear growth in children ( 1 , 2 ), associated with potential early severe morbidity (psychosocial problems and episodes of hypoglycemia). In addition, persistency of GHD into

Open access

M Krause, H Frederiksen, K Sundberg, F S Jørgensen, L N Jensen, P Nørgaard, C Jørgensen, P Ertberg, J H Petersen, U Feldt-Rasmussen, A Juul, K T Drzewiecki, N E Skakkebaek, and A M Andersson

maternal urine and 4-HBP in maternal serum) to maternal serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and growth factors and also to birth outcomes. Materials and methods Study population and materials The study population consisted of participants