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Cecilia Lundin, Agota Malmborg, Julia Slezak, Kristina Gemzell Danielsson, Marie Bixo, Hanna Bengtsdotter, Lena Marions, Ingela Lindh, Elvar Theodorsson, Mats Hammar, and Inger Sundström-Poromaa

established in COC users ( 2 , 4 ), many still believe that the COC-induced decrease in bioavailable testosterone may negatively affect sexual function ( 2 , 7 , 8 ). Hormone measurement in hair is a new method that allows non-invasive sampling of the

Open access

Ditte Sofie Dahl Sørensen, Jesper Krogh, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, and Mikkel Andreassen

focusing on time of day for blood sample collection, phenotype and long-acting vs short-acting glucocorticoid replacement; (iii) to assess concordance between serum levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone in relation to normal

Open access

Clara Lundetoft Clausen, Trine Holm Johannsen, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Hanne Frederiksen, Camilla Koch Ryrsø, Arnold Matovu Dungu, Maria Hein Hegelund, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen, Rikke Krogh-Madsen, Birgitte Lindegaard, Allan Linneberg, Line Lund Kårhus, Anders Juul, and Thomas Benfield

in disease progression. Studies have reported association of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in men hospitalized with COVID-19 with severely suppressed concentrations of testosterone and increased concentrations of estradiol with a

Open access

M von Wolff, C T Nakas, M Tobler, T M Merz, M P Hilty, J D Veldhuis, A R Huber, and J Pichler Hefti

−80°C thereafter. Cortisol, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free tetraiodothyronine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and total testosterone (testosterone) were analysed

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M P Schuijt, C G J Sweep, R van der Steen, A J Olthaar, N M M L Stikkelbroeck, H A Ross, and A E van Herwaarden

Introduction In women, small amounts of testosterone are synthesized in the ovaries ( 1 ). Next to the gonads, testosterone is also produced and secreted from the adrenal glands in both sexes. Most testosterone circulates tightly bound to sex

Open access

Luca Boeri, Paolo Capogrosso, Walter Cazzaniga, Edoardo Pozzi, Luigi Candela, Federico Belladelli, Davide Oreggia, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Nicolò Schifano, Giuseppe Fallara, Marina Pontillo, Costantino Abbate, Emanuele Montanari, Francesco Montorsi, and Andrea Salonia

Introduction In postpuberal males the testes contribute to more than 95% of total testosterone (tT) in serum, where it equilibrates between protein-bound (98%) and free hormone (1–2%) fractions ( 1 ). Circulating testosterone is bound either

Open access

Stine A Holmboe, Ravi Jasuja, Brian Lawney, Lærke Priskorn, Niels Joergensen, Allan Linneberg, Tina Kold Jensen, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Anders Juul, and Anna-Maria Andersson

Introduction Testosterone in serum is primarily bound to proteins with only a minor fraction circulating as free unbound testosterone. The major high-affinity binding protein is sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ( 1 ). Because of the short

Open access

Milou Cecilia Madsen, Martin den Heijer, Claudia Pees, Nienke R Biermasz, and Leontine E H Bakker

Introduction Testosterone is the primary sex hormone and anabolic steroid in men. It is secreted primarily by the Leydig cells of the testicles and, to a much lesser extent, by the adrenal glands. Testes produce 3–10 mg of testosterone daily

Open access

Simon Chang, Christian Fynbo Christiansen, Anders Bojesen, Svend Juul, Anna-Marie B Münster, and Claus H Gravholt

Introduction Men with 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome (KS) commonly present hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and are commonly treated with testosterone supplementation therapy ( 1 ). However, this treatment is almost entirely based on our knowledge

Open access

Lachlan Angus, Shalem Leemaqz, Olivia Ooi, Pauline Cundill, Nicholas Silberstein, Peter Locke, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Ada S Cheung

oestradiol as feminising gender-affirming hormone therapy ( 3 ). Goals of therapy are generally to increase serum oestradiol concentrations and lower serum total testosterone concentrations to achieve sex steroid concentrations in the female reference range