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Lachlan Angus, Shalem Leemaqz, Olivia Ooi, Pauline Cundill, Nicholas Silberstein, Peter Locke, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Ada S Cheung

. Over 3–24 months, this leads to feminine physical characteristics including softening of skin, a decrease in facial and body hair growth, changes in body fat and muscle distribution, as well as breast development ( 4 ). Oestradiol improves psychological

Open access

Teodoro Durá-Travé, Fidel Gallinas-Victoriano, María Malumbres-Chacon, Lotfi Ahmed-Mohamed, María Jesús Chueca -Guindulain, and Sara Berrade-Zubiri

sexual precocity have suppressed basal LH levels. That is, the presence of a high concentration of estradiol with low basal gonadotropins together with a rapid development of secondary sexual characteristics should compel to investigate for peripheral

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Conor V Dolan, Bibian van der Voorn, Ruth Andrew, Brian R Walker, Hilleke Hulshoff Pol, Dorret I Boomsma, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J J Finken

committee of the Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc. Participants were physically examined by a researcher for pubertal stage at ages 9 and 12 years. The examination was based on secondary sexual characteristics according to Marshall and Tanner, that is, breast

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Amar Osmancevic, Kristin Ottarsdottir, Margareta Hellgren, Ulf Lindblad, and Bledar Daka

Bartfai G Boonen S Casanueva FF Giwercman A , Characteristics of secondary, primary, and compensated hypogonadism in aging men: evidence from the European Male Ageing Study . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2010 95 1810 – 1818

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Silvia Ciancia, Vanessa Dubois, and Martine Cools

youth healthcare. Current guidelines recommend the use of GnRH analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty and prevent the development of secondary sexual characteristics. At ages 15–16 years, gender-affirming hormones (GAH) are usually added (non

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Sebastian Franik, Kathrin Fleischer, Barbara Kortmann, Nike M Stikkelbroeck, Kathleen D’Hauwers, Claire Bouvattier, Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Solange Grunenwald, Tim van de Grift, Audrey Cartault, Annette Richter-Unruh, Nicole Reisch, Ute Thyen, Joanna IntHout, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, and

azoospermia is found in about 90% of adult men with KS ( 2 ). Other frequent clinical symptoms include gynecomastia, a low sexual drive, small testes and hypogonadism due to impaired testosterone production ( 3 , 4 ). KS is also associated with

Open access

M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra, and H J G Bilo

at the end of both treatment phases were used for analysis. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was the difference in SHBG concentrations between the CIPII and SC treatment phase. Secondary outcomes included the course of SHBG

Open access

Agnieszka Pazderska, Yaasir Mamoojee, Satish Artham, Margaret Miller, Stephen G Ball, Tim Cheetham, and Richard Quinton

), the proportion of males with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH) rises steeply thereafter, eventually comprising the universality of cases by the third decade of life ( 2 ). Whereas both primary and secondary (CHH) ovarian insufficiencies

Open access

Athanasios Zervas, George Chrousos, and Sarantis Livadas

time of diagnosis. At the onset of puberty, many patients with PROP1 mutations also exhibit LH and FSH deficiency and fail to develop secondary sexual characteristics (possibly applicable to Dopey). The loss of gonadotropins may also present as an

Open access

Brendan J Nolan, Aviva S Frydman, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Meg Carroll, Mathis Grossmann, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Ada S Cheung

development of physical characteristics that align with their gender identity and improves mental health ( 1 ). There has been an ongoing debate regarding the inclusion of progesterone in feminising hormone therapy regimens. Some suggest progesterone may aid