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M Jensterle, A Podbregar, K Goricar, N Gregoric, and A Janez

), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined with a chemiluminescent immunoassay (Immulite 2000 XPi Analyzer; Siemens Healthcare). Within and between assays, coefficients of variation for the applied method ranged from 1.2 to

Open access

Elinor Chelsom Vogt, Francisco Gómez Real, Eystein Sverre Husebye, Sigridur Björnsdottir, Bryndis Benediktsdottir, Randi Jacobsen Bertelsen, Pascal Demoly, Karl Anders Franklin, Leire Sainz de Aja Gallastegui, Francisco Javier Callejas González, Joachim Heinrich, Mathias Holm, Nils Oscar Jogi, Benedicte Leynaert, Eva Lindberg, Andrei Malinovschi, Jesús Martínez-Moratalla, Raúl Godoy Mayoral, Anna Oudin, Antonio Pereira-Vega, Chantal Raherison Semjen, Vivi Schlünssen, Kai Triebner, and Marianne Oksnes

Objective: To investigate markers of premature menopause (<40 years), and specifically the prevalence of autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in European women.

Design: Postmenopausal women were categorized according to age at menopause and self-reported reason for menopause in a cross-sectional analysis of 6870 women.

Methods: Variables associated with timing of menopause and hormone measurements of 17β-estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were explored using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Specific immunoprecipitating assays of steroidogenic autoantibodies against 21-hydroxylase (21-OH), side chain cleavage enzyme (anti-SCC) and 17alpha-hydroxylase (17 OH) as well as NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 (NALP5) were used to identify women with likely autoimmune POI.

Results: Premature menopause was identified in 2.8% of women, and these women had higher frequencies of nulliparity (37.4% vs 19.7%), obesity (28.7% vs 21.4%), osteoporosis (17.1% vs 11.6%), hormone replacement therapy (59.1% vs 36.9%) and never smokers (60.1% vs 50.9%), (p<0.05), compared to women with menopause ≥ 40 years. Iatrogenic causes were found in 91 (47%) and non-ovarian causes in 27 (14%) women, while 77 (39%) women were classified as POI of unknown cause, resulting in a 1.1% prevalence of idiopathic POI. After adjustments nulliparity was the only variable significantly associated with POI (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.63-3.42). Based on the presence of autoantibodies against 21 OH and SCC, 4.5% of POI cases were of likely autoimmune origin.

Conclusion: Idiopathic POI affects 1.1% of all women and almost half of women with premature menopause. Autoimmunity explains 4.5% of these cases judged by positive steroidogenic autoantibodies.

Open access

Antonina Khoruzhenko, Françoise Miot, Claude Massart, Jacqueline Van Sande, Jacques Emile Dumont, Renaud Beauwens, and Alain Boom

Yamaguchi S Shibuya M Stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone and Grave’s immunoglobulin G of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression in human thyroid follicles in vitro and mRNA expression in the rat thyroid in vivo . Journal of Clinical

Open access

Hui Long, Yanhong Nie, Li Wang, Yong Lu, Yan Wang, Yijun Cai, Zhen Liu, Miaomiao Jia, Qifeng Lyu, Yanping Kuang, and Qiang Sun

characteristics, such as age, menstrual cycle length and results from previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles are generally considered for ovarian stimulation strategies. Apart from these factors, several ovarian markers, such as antral follicle count (AFC

Open access

Wolfgang Koechling, Daniel Plaksin, Glenn E Croston, Janni V Jeppesen, Kirsten T Macklon, and Claus Yding Andersen

Introduction Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released from the anterior pituitary in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a central role in reproduction in women, driving the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles

Open access

D Santi, A R M Granata, and M Simoni

ART (8) . The outcome of ICSI seems to be influenced by sperm structure and quality (9) . Thus, it seems reasonable that an improvement in sperm quality could effect ICSI outcomes. The empirical administration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to

Open access

Arpna Sharma, Vijay Simha Baddela, Frank Becker, Dirk Dannenberger, Torsten Viergutz, and Jens Vanselow

.7.0138 ) 10.1210/mend.12.7.0138 44 Dierich A Sairam MR Monaco L Fimia GM Gansmuller A LeMeur M Sassone-Corsi P . Impairing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) signaling in vivo: targeted disruption of the FSH receptor leads to aberrant gametogenesis and

Open access

Isabelle Flechtner, Magali Viaud, Dulanjalee Kariyawasam, Marie Perrissin-Fabert, Maud Bidet, Anne Bachelot, Philippe Touraine, Philippe Labrune, Pascale de Lonlay, and Michel Polak

criteria for the procedure. In females, the following were assayed on a blood sample collected between the 3rd and the 6th days of the menstrual cycle or at least 1 month after hormone therapy discontinuation: luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating

Open access

Angela Köninger, Philippos Edimiris, Laura Koch, Antje Enekwe, Claudia Lamina, Sabine Kasimir-Bauer, Rainer Kimmig, and Hans Dieplinger

patients with PCOS with impaired glucose metabolism (2) . In recent years, research has focused on AMH as a highly reliable diagnostic parameter for PCOS, reflecting the arrested follicle pool by acting as a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH

Open access

Nardin Aslih, Mediea Michaeli, Diana Mashenko, Adrian Ellenbogen, Oshrit Lebovitz, Yuval Atzmon, and Einat Shalom-Paz

placentation . Reproductive Biomedicine Online 2010 21 331 – 337 . ( ) 4 Loumaye E Engrand P Howles CM O’Dea L Assessment of the role of serum luteinizing hormone and estradiol response to follicle-stimulating