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Kunzhe Lin, Lingling Lu, Zhijie Pei, Shuwen Mu, Shaokuan Huang, and Shousen Wang

occurrence of postoperative hyponatremia ( 19 ). The results of the multivariate analysis in the present study suggested that preoperative hypothyroidism was an independent predictor of postoperative-delayed hyponatremia. Hypothyroidism can cause hyponatremia

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Aditya Dutta, Ganesh Jevalikar, Rutuja Sharma, Khalid J Farooqui, Shama Mahendru, Arun Dewan, Sandeep Bhudiraja, and Ambrish Mithal

, thereby directly afflicting the endocrine system ( 12 ). Hypothyroidism is a common comorbidity seen in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 ( 13 ). Prior history of thyroid disorders and the risk of COVID-19 severity and progression is a contentious

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Madalena von Hafe, João Sergio Neves, Catarina Vale, Marta Borges-Canha, and Adelino Leite-Moreira

contractile apparatus of the cardiac myocyte has two subtypes of myosin heavy chains (MHCs): α-MHC and β-MHC – fast and slow myosin, respectively. T3 can upregulate α-MHC and downregulate β-MHC ( 10 ). Therefore, the myocardial hypothyroid state induces a so

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Peter Wolf, Yvonne Winhofer, Martin Krššák, and Michael Krebs

hormone (TSH) <0.1 or ≥10 μU/mL ( 47 ). Especially in patients suffering from congestive heart failure, both subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism are associated with increased mortality ( 48 ). The same is true for patients hospitalized for

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Nikolina Zdraveska, Maja Zdravkovska, Violeta Anastasovska, Elena Sukarova-Angelovska, and Mirjana Kocova

Introduction Thyroid hormones play important role in the processes of neuronal migration and differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis and are essential for proper neurodevelopment ( 1 ). Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is generally

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Aasem Saif, Shrook Mousa, Maha Assem, Nashwa Tharwat, and Alaa Abdelhamid

Introduction Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease owing to its metabolic and hemodynamic effects ( 1 ). Multiple mechanisms account for atherosclerosis in patients with hypothyroidism

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Akinori Sairaku, Yukiko Nakano, Yuko Uchimura, Takehito Tokuyama, Hiroshi Kawazoe, Yoshikazu Watanabe, Hiroya Matsumura, and Yasuki Kihara

Introduction Overt hypothyroidism is known to increase the cardiovascular disorders, and thus there is a consensus to treat it ( 1 , 2 , 3 ), as with hyperparathyroidism ( 4 ). However, it remains controversial whether that is also true for

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Carmen Sydlik, Ilja Dubinski, Susanne Bechtold, and Heinrich Schmidt

hypothyroidism. Therefore, thyroxine/free thyroxine (T4/fT4) levels are used as an additional parameter for therapy adjustment in patients treated with levothyroxine (LT4). However, peripheral euthyroidism cannot be reliably assessed even with both parameters

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Luca Persani, Biagio Cangiano, and Marco Bonomi

Introduction Central hypothyroidism (CeH) is a rare and heterogenous hypothyroid condition resulting from an insufficient stimulation of an otherwise normal thyroid gland by the hypophyseal thyrotropin hormone (TSH). This loss of central

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Ningning Gong, Cuixia Gao, Xuedi Chen, Yu Wang, and Limin Tian

Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT) is defined by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal thyroid hormone concentrations. The prevalence of sHT is 4–20% in adults ( 1 ). Recently, a relationship between sHT and