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Stephanie Burger-Stritt, Linda Bachmann, Max Kurlbaum, and Stefanie Hahner

suppositories (VAG-PN) may be an alternative administration form. In an anonymous survey of 18 females with AI immediately following training in self-injection of GCs, 28% ( n  = 5) preferred vaginal administration of a suppository over GC injection (own

Open access

Luminita Nicoleta Cima, Anca Colita, and Simona Fica

function after chemotherapy does not always imply fertility restoration ( 36 ). A prospective observational study performed by Huser and coworkers involving 108 females newly diagnosed with HL who were treated with different types of chemotherapy while

Open access

Shatha Alharazy, M Denise Robertson, Susan Lanham-New, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Adeel G Chaudhary, and Eman Alissa

-sectional study carried out in a sample of 302 postmenopausal women (age ≥50 years) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, (August 2018 to September 2019). Sample size calculation The total number of females of age range between 50 and 79 years in the western area of

Open access

Shruti Khare, Anurag R Lila, Hiren Patt, Chaitanya Yerawar, Manjunath Goroshi, Tushar Bandgar, and Nalini S Shah

Introduction Macroprolactinomas constitute approximately half of all the functioning pituitary macroadenomas (1) . Prolactinoma (majority being microprolactinoma) are usually diagnosed in women aged 20–50 years, with a female:male ratio of 10

Open access

Kerry V Fanson, Tamara Keeley, and Benjamin G Fanson

have not found the evidence that mean cortisol levels differ between cyclic and acyclic females (21, 24) . However, this does not rule out the possibility that more fine-scale patterns of cortisol expression are disrupted in non-cycling elephants. Mean

Open access

Myrian Velasco, Rosa Isela Ortiz-Huidobro, Carlos Larqué, Yuriko Itzel Sánchez-Zamora, José Romo-Yáñez, and Marcia Hiriart

, AKT and P70S6K1 in adipose tissue and the gastrocnemius muscle in a MS model, induced with a high-sucrose diet in male and female rats. Material and methods We obtained reagents as follows: HEPES, oil red-O, EGTA and collagenase from Merck

Open access

Robert A Hart, Robin C Dobos, Linda L Agnew, Neil A Smart, and James R McFarlane

). Leptin is critical in reproduction, allowing pubertal development ( 23 , 24 ) as well as regulating testis development ( 25 ) and ovarian follicle development ( 26 ). Leptin is known to circulate at higher concentrations in females than males in

Open access

Alessandra Gambineri and Carla Pelusi

tissues, particularly on adipose tissue. The sexual dimorphism of androgens in the pathophysiology of T2DM is emphasized. Sex hormone differences between the sexes Males and females produce the same steroid hormones in a similar way. Regarding

Open access

Isabelle Flechtner, Magali Viaud, Dulanjalee Kariyawasam, Marie Perrissin-Fabert, Maud Bidet, Anne Bachelot, Philippe Touraine, Philippe Labrune, Pascale de Lonlay, and Michel Polak

). In females, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism resulting in delayed puberty, primary or secondary amenorrhea, and infertility is common ( 9 , 10 ) and severely impairs quality of life ( 11 ). The age of POI onset varies widely. Many pathophysiological

Open access

Alessandro Ciresi, Stefano Radellini, Valentina Guarnotta, Maria Grazia Mineo, and Carla Giordano

bone and lose fat than females ( 1 ) and the close relationship between GH and gonadal steroid levels during puberty suggests that gonadal steroids may also stimulate linear growth by enhancing pituitary GH secretion ( 15 ). Conversely, the