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Ling-Jun Li, Izzuddin M Aris, Lin Lin Su, Yap Seng Chong, Tien Yin Wong, Kok Hian Tan, and Jie Jin Wang

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are two of the most commonly seen pregnancy complications that adversely affect both short-term and long-term maternal and fetal outcomes ( 1 , 2

Open access

Laura Potasso, Julie Refardt, Irina Chifu, Martin Fassnacht, Wiebke Kristin Fenske, and Mirjam Christ-Crain

Introduction The hypertonic saline infusion test with continuous infusion of 3% NaCl has recently been put forward as a new test for the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI) ( 1 ). For other indications such as hemorrhagic and septic shock

Open access

Panisa Hantrakun, Rattanaporn Sekararithi, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sirinart Kumfu, Chatree Chai-adisaksopha, Nipon Chattipakorn, Theera Tongsong, and Phudit Jatavan

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), one of the most common complications in pregnancy, is defined as glucose intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy ( 1 ). GDM usually disappears shortly after birth but up to 50% will

Open access

Annalisa Blasetti, Valeria Castorani, Nella Polidori, Ilaria Mascioli, Francesco Chiarelli, and Cosimo Giannini

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other chronic diseases are well recognized to adversely affect linear growth in childhood. Indeed, early studies have shown that suboptimal glycemic control and longer disease duration can impair

Open access

P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, N Kleefstra, H J G Bilo, and H J Arnqvist

the hepatic sensitivity of GH stimulation and subsequently increases IGF1 production (8) . Furthermore, insulin increases IGF1 bioactivity by a down-regulation of IGFBP1 expression in the liver (5) . In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), with

Open access

Chenghao Piao, Xiaojie Wang, Shiqiao Peng, Xinyu Guo, Hui Zhao, Li He, Yan Zeng, Fan Zhang, Kewen Zhu, and Yiwei Wang

Introduction Insulin sensitivity during pregnancy is reduced with the advancement of gestation. Thus, the demand for insulin is elevated to maintain the common blood sugar ( 1 ). Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by glucose

Open access

David P Sonne, Asger Lund, Jens Faber, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, and Filip K Knop

-diabetic patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, and recent reports have demonstrated similar associations of bile acids with TSH in type 2 diabetes (6, 7, 8) . In contrast, Brufau et al . (9) could not demonstrate any effect of bile acids

Open access

Xiuzhen Zhang, Dan Xu, Ping Xu, Shufen Yang, Qingmei Zhang, Yan Wu, and Fengyi Yuan

Introduction Amongst the background of the rising incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) across the globe, public concern has reached a new high ( 1 ). Despite progress in diabetes care, as the leading cause of mortality in T1DM ( 2

Open access

Katrine M Lauritsen, Jens Hohwü Voigt, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen, Troels K Hansen, Niels Møller, Niels Jessen, Lars C Gormsen, and Esben Søndergaard

Central Denmark Region Committees on Health Research Ethics. The study was registered at (EUDRA-CT no: 2017-001779-22). Informed, written consent was obtained from all participants. Thirteen individuals with type 2 diabetes

Open access

Wei Liu, Yunke Ma, Xiaoling Cai, Yu Zhu, Mingxia Zhang, Juan Li, Jing Chen, Dawei Shi, and Linong Ji

Introduction Measurement of serum C-peptide is important in clinical practice since differences in intrinsic insulin secretion are fundamental to diabetes classification and treatment strategy ( 1 ). In clinically diagnosed type 1 diabetes