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Aaron Lerner, Patricia Jeremias, and Torsten Matthias

-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO). The disease is a common cause of low thyroid hormones with a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) but some exhibit subclinical hypothyroidism. Interestingly, symptoms of HT and celiac disease (CD) often overlap ( Table 1 ), and

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C E Higham, A Olsson-Brown, P Carroll, T Cooksley, J Larkin, P Lorigan, D Morganstein, P J Trainer, and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

( 19 ). If myxedema secondary to hypothyroidism is suspected, specialist endocrine input should be sought. Thyroxine should never be instigated unless cortisol deficiency is excluded as it can trigger an adrenal crisis. If in doubt, treat for

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Sophie Howarth, Luca Giovanelli, Catherine Napier, and Simon H Pearce

as type 1 diabetes, autoimmune hypothyroidism and pernicious anaemia. Complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors gives rise to immune-mediated destruction of the steroid-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As in type 1 diabetes

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Amit Kumar, Maria Ghosh, and Jubbin Jagan Jacob

principal cause of euvolemic hyponatremia (EuVHNa). Although SIAD has a specific diagnostic criteria, it remains a diagnosis of exclusion and needs the absence of secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI) and hypothyroidism as an essential criterion for the

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Fei Wu, Chaoming Mao, Xiao Mou, Chengcheng Xu, Tingting Zheng, Ling Bu, Xuan Luo, Qingyan Lu, and Xuefeng Wang

-γ) was mediated by the GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Discussion HT is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells and the tendency to hypothyroidism, the unique pathologic feature of which is the infiltration of many lymphocytes. Chemokines

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Elin Kahlert, Martina Blaschke, Knut Brockmann, Clemens Freiberg, Onno E Janssen, Nikolaus Stahnke, Domenika Strik, Martin Merkel, Alexander Mann, Klaus-Peter Liesenkötter, and Heide Siggelkow

positive in 5%. Substitution with l -thyroxine was necessary in 38.3% of the participants to treat hypothyroidism. In a Danish study, 45% of the patients, with a mean age of 36.7 years, were revealed as positive for TPO-AB; hypothyroidism was found in 33

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Aleksandra Krygier, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Dorota Filipowicz, and Marek Ruchała

hypothyroidism (7.7%), subclinical thyroid dysfunctions (3.3–5%) and the euthyroid state (4.7%) according to a large cohort study ( 3 ). Notably, reports indicated that complete blood count (CBC) disturbances commonly resolve after restoration of euthyroidism ( 4

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Anne H van der Spek, Olga V Surovtseva, Saskia Aan, Anton T J Tool, Annemarie van de Geer, Korcan Demir, Anja L M van Gucht, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Timo K van den Berg, Eric Fliers, and Anita Boelen

predominant TR in these cells: TRα. Although THs do appear to affect immune function at the cellular level ( 25 ), the effect of hypothyroidism on the immune response in patients is not entirely clear. A number of studies suggest that hypothyroidism impairs

Open access

Qiankai Jin, Guoqing Huang, Xiaoqing Tian, Yimeng Shu, Ximisinuer Tusongtuoheti, and Yushan Mao

five items are met, the diagnosis of MetS was made. In the meantime, according to the questionnaire, employees with diagnosed thyroid disease included those who have taken or are taking thyroxine tablets alone (hypothyroidism), those who have taken or

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Richard J Auchus

obtained with thyroxine therapy for severe hypothyroidism, estrogen for ovarian failure, growth hormone for pituitary dwarfism, and most recently, recombinant parathyroid hormone for hypoparathyroidism ( 2 ). These sweeping responses to properly