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Shane M Regnier, Andrew G Kirkley, Daniel Ruiz, Wakanene Kamau, Qian Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, and Robert M Sargis

have shown that TF augments adipogenesis in vitro ( 18 ) and promotes insulin resistance in rodent and human adipose tissues exposed ex vivo ( 19 ). These effects are postulated to result from activation of adipocytic glucocorticoid receptor (GR

Open access

Bo Zhu, Yumei Chen, Fang Xu, Xiaolu Shen, Xuanyu Chen, Jieqiang Lv, and Songying Zhang

that reflects their physiological function as proinsulin maturation and insulin secretion, and disruption of ER homeostasis in β cells affect their physiological function and result in excessive amount of insulin in circulation, hyperinsulinemia, which

Open access

Benjamin G Challis, Andrew S Powlson, Ruth T Casey, Carla Pearson, Brian Y Lam, Marcella Ma, Deborah Pitfield, Giles S H Yeo, Edmund Godfrey, Heok K Cheow, V Krishna Chatterjee, Nicholas R Carroll, Ashley Shaw, John R Buscombe, and Helen L Simpson

hypoglycaemic disorder ( 1 ). Rare non-genetic and genetic causes of adult-onset HH have been described, the most common being benign insulinoma. These are insulin-secreting tumours of the pancreatic islets with an annual incidence 1–2 per million population

Open access

Giovanni Fanni, Petros Katsogiannos, Bipasha Nandi Jui, Magnus Sundbom, Susanne Hetty, Maria J Pereira, and Jan W Eriksson

Introduction Besides inducing significant and durable weight loss, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves glycemic control in insulin-resistant patients and can prevent or reverse type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). This

Open access

Tingting Shu, Zhigang Lv, Yuchun Xie, Junming Tang, and Xuhua Mao

existed in insulin-secreting β-cells ( 3 ), and then other studies showed low concentration of glucose could stimulate hepcidin secretion in pancreatic beta cell line ( 4 , 5 ). Subsequently, the correlation between hepcidin and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has

Open access

Xiaoli Liu, Lanxiang Liu, Rui Wang, Xiaojiao Jia, Binbin Liu, Ning Ma, and Qiang Lu

glucose and lipids, increasing insulin sensitivity, and reversing hepatic steatosis. Recent studies have found that increasing the concentration of FGF21 in the blood can delay vascular endothelial aging ( 8 ) and that FGF21 can be used as a cell

Open access

Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge, Nicole G Jaff, Shane A Norris, Marketa Toman, and Nigel J Crowther

, several studies have shown that low levels of adiponectin are associated with a heightened risk for hypertension ( 3 , 4 ), insulin resistance, diabetes ( 5 ) and inflammation ( 6 ), while higher levels are cardioprotective ( 5 , 7 ). Regional fat

Open access

Ahmet Uçar, Nurçin Saka, Firdevs Baş, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Rüveyde Bundak, and Feyza Darendeliler

blood samples for glucose and lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs)), serum insulin, LH, FSH, DHEAS, total testosterone, and high-sensitivity C

Open access

Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

, insulin resistance, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS may be as high as 15–20% of women of reproductive age ( 3 ). Although it was first reported in 1935 by Stein et al ., its etiology is still unclear. PCOS has a

Open access

Zhiwei Zhang, Hui Zhao, and Aixia Wang

GDM has not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that antagonism of insulin by hormones secreted by the placenta, such as placental prolactin (HPL), estrogen, progesterone, etc., mainly contributes to pathogenesis of GDM ( 2 ). In