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Jing Wang, Leishen Wang, Huikun Liu, Shuang Zhang, Junhong Leng, Weiqin Li, Tao Zhang, Nan Li, Wei Li, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou, and Gang Hu

Introduction The worldwide rise in over-nutrition, sedentary life and obesity has resulted in a steep increase in the number of women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy ( 1 ). Nearly 7% of pregnancies in the

Open access

T Grimmichova, M Haluzik, K Vondra, P Matucha, and M Hill

ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration ( 6 ). Finally, and the topic of our study, (8) type 2 diabetes (T2DM), obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in the framework of the worldwide epidemic of diabetes and obesity. In general, patients with diabetes have an

Open access

Eva Olga Melin, Magnus Hillman, and Mona Landin-Olsson

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease, characterised by insulin deficiency due to pancreatic β-cell loss leading to hyperglycaemia ( 1 ). T1D is associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction, heart failure and

Open access

Karoline Winckler, Lise Tarnow, Louise Lundby-Christensen, Thomas P Almdal, Niels Wiinberg, Pia Eiken, Trine W Boesgaard, and the CIMT trial group

Introduction Despite aggressive treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) still have an about twofold increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to the general population (1

Open access

Yusen Liu, Ruiwen Chi, Yujie Jiang, Bicheng Chen, Youli Chen, and Zengrui Chen

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the most common medical disorder in pregnancy, is defined as glucose intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia that begins or is first diagnosed during pregnancy ( 1 ). GDM is associated with

Open access

Changwei Liu, Jingwen Wang, Yuanyuan Wan, Xiaona Xia, Jian Pan, Wei Gu, and Mei Li

Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease occurring in the pancreatic islets. The disease can affect people of any age, but onset usually occurs in children or young adults, which accounts for 90% of diabetes in

Open access

Fang Lv, Xiaoling Cai, Chu Lin, Tianpei Hong, Xiaomei Zhang, Zhufeng Wang, Huifang Xing, Guizhi Zong, Juming Lu, Xiaohui Guo, Jing Wu, Leili Gao, Xianghai Zhou, Xueyao Han, and Linong Ji

(Obesity and overweight. 1 April 2020). It was also suggested that the epidemic of obesity and overweight ( 1 ) was associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) ( 2

Open access

Lili Liu, Zhuo Shao, Ying Xia, Jiabi Qin, Yang Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou, and Zubing Mei

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which is caused by the selective destruction of the insulin-producing β cells located in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, is one of the most common and debilitating autoimmune diseases ( 1

Open access

Ozlem Atan Sahin, Damla Goksen, Aysel Ozpinar, Muhittin Serdar, and Huseyin Onay

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (DM1) is a complex disease characterized by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Vitamin D is an immune regulatory hormone that exerts its effects through highly polymorphic VDR that belongs to

Open access

Unni Syversen, Mats Peder Mosti, Ida Maria Mynarek, Trude Seselie Jahr Vedal, Kristin Aasarød, Trude Basso, Janne E Reseland, Per Medbøe Thorsby, Bjorn O Asvold, Erik Fink Eriksen, and Astrid Kamilla Stunes

Introduction Several studies have demonstrated increased fracture risk in both type 1 and 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D). A meta-analysis by Shah et al. ( n  = 27,300) showed that subjects with T1D displayed a three-fold higher relative risk for