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M Jensterle, A Podbregar, K Goricar, N Gregoric, and A Janez

Montori VM & Task Force, Endocrine Society . Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2010 95 2536 – 2559 . ( https

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Henrik Falhammar, Hedi Claahsen-van der Grinten, Nicole Reisch, Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Anna Nordenström, Robert Roehle, Claire Bouvattier, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Birgit Köhler, and on behalf of the dsd-LIFE group

atypical sex chromosome configurations such as Turner syndrome (TS), Klinefelter syndrome (KS), 45,X/46,XY and 46,XX/46,XY; XY-DSD characterized by impairment of testicular development, androgen biosynthesis or action or severe hypospadias of unknown origin

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Vittorio Unfer, Fabio Facchinetti, Beatrice Orrù, Barbara Giordani, and John Nestler

place under the control of DCI. This molecule on the ovary regulates the insulin-induced androgen synthesis, whereas MI regulates glucose uptake and FSH signaling ( 1 ). In view of its recognized insulin-sensitizing activity, MI has been used to

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Efstratios Kardalas, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Gerasimos Siasos, and Andromachi Vryonidou

(DOC), urinary 17-ketosteroids, urinary tetra hydrometabolites, adrenal androgens, testosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone are elevated. On the contrast, in 17-alpha hydroxylase deficiency, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol cortisol, adrenal

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Jan Roar Mellembakken, Azita Mahmoudan, Lars Mørkrid, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Laure Morin-Papunen, Juha S Tapanainen, Terhi T Piltonen, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Eszter Vanky, Pernille Ravn, Richard Christian Jensen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, and Dorte Glintborg

( 19 ). This method shows a close correlation with the determination of testosterone levels using mass spectrometry ( 19 ). Free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by dividing total testosterone with SHBG and multiplying by 100. Statistics

Open access

Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

etiology of PCOS, and it can disturb the steroidogenesis process. The StAR protein regulates the transport of cholesterol through the mitochondrial membrane in the first step of androgen biosynthesis ( 14 , 15 ). Evidence suggests that patients with PCOS

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Sandra R Dahl, Ingrid Nermoen, Ingeborg Brønstad, Eystein S Husebye, Kristian Løvås, and Per M Thorsby

the simple virilizing (SV) form where sufficient aldosterone is produced to avoid salt wasting. Both are accompanied by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-driven increase in adrenal androgens with a virilizing effect on girls. Untreated, premature

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M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra, and H J G Bilo

, elevated androgen levels, alopecia, acromegaly, hypo­thyroidism, hyperthyroidism, liver cirrhosis, and use of oral contraceptive or anti-epileptic drugs were excluded. Measurements The following data were recorded at baseline: smoking, alcohol

Open access

Johanna Christina Penell, Mark M Kushnir, Lars Lind, Jonatan Bergquist, Jonas Bergquist, P Monica Lind, and Tord Naessen

for biosynthesis of estrogens in the fat tissue. It has not been established in what way sex steroids are associated with cardiovascular disease. However, lower levels of androgens and higher levels of estrogens have been associated with a more

Open access

Iben Katinka Greiber, Casper P Hagen, Alexander Siegfried Busch, Mikkel Grunnet Mieritz, Lise Aksglæde, Katharina Main, Kristian Almstrup, and Anders Juul

Sertoli cells differentiate and start to express androgen receptors ( 8 , 9 ). The function of AMH in adult men is not known. Circulating AMH varies widely between male individuals at levels comparable with levels in young adult females ( 10 ). No strong