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Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Julia Schulz, Manfred Ventz, Kathrin Zopf, and Marcus Quinkler

Introduction In states of adrenal insufficiency (AI), such as primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), glucocorticoids (GCs) are given in low doses as hormone replacement therapy. However, the daily intake

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Bliss Anderson and Daniel L Morganstein

cessation of CPI therapy and immunosuppression with glucocorticoids as first-line agents ( 5 ). Figure 1 Graphic illustrating checkpoint inhibitor action to shift immune response. Without treatment self and tumour reacting T-cells are driven to

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Sandra R Dahl, Ingrid Nermoen, Ingeborg Brønstad, Eystein S Husebye, Kristian Løvås, and Per M Thorsby

sufficient glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement to suppress ACTH and adrenal androgen production without inducing glucocorticoid side effects ( 4 ). Monitoring of replacement therapy is difficult and lacks standardization in adults. Clinical

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V Guarnotta, C Di Stefano, A Santoro, A Ciresi, A Coppola, and C Giordano

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality, likely due to inappropriate glucocorticoid (GC) treatment and no physiological daily exposure. Indeed, conventional GC treatment, with hydrocortisone (HC

Open access

Fiona Broughton Pipkin, Hiten D Mistry, Chandrima Roy, Bernhard Dick, Jason Waugh, Rebecca Chikhi, Lesia O Kurlak, and Markus G Mohaupt

feedback control of glucocorticoid maintenance and an association with metabolic syndrome (10, 11) . Little is known about steroid hormone availability and metabolism during the early postpartum period in infants. Fetal exposure to maternal cortisol is

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Iulia Soare, Anca Sirbu, Mihai Mircea Diculescu, Bogdan Radu Mateescu, Cristian Tieranu, Sorina Martin, Carmen Gabriela Barbu, Mirela Ionescu, and Simona Fica

previously conducted ( 3 ). Many factors are associated with decreased BMD, one of which is the use of high-dose glucocorticoids. A Swiss IBD cohort study has reported an increased percentage of steroid use in IBD patients with osteoporosis (79.2%) and

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Paal Methlie, Steinar Hustad, Ralf Kellman, Bjørg Almås, Martina M Erichsen, Eystein S Husebye, and Kristian Løvås

Introduction Glucocorticoid and androgen hormone measurements play a decisive role in the diagnosis and management of many disorders of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and gonads. Examples include Addison's disease (AD), Cushing

Open access

Thabiso R P Mofokeng, Salem A Beshyah, Fazleh Mahomed, Kwazi C Z Ndlovu, and Ian L Ross

of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, which are life-saving. Despite the availability of appropriate replacement therapy in developed countries, there is a residual increased mortality, morbidity, and reduced quality of life ( 12 ) associated

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Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Angela Huebner, Anette Richter-Unruh, Markus Bettendorf, Tilman Rohrer, Klaus Kapelari, Stefan Riedl, Klaus Mohnike, Helmuth-Günther Dörr, Friedrich-Wilhelm Roehl, Katharina Fink, Reinhard W Holl, and Joachim Woelfle

were described in a large cohort of children with CAH from the AQUAPE CAH registry ( 4 ). Treatment in classic CAH is necessary to compensate for glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiencies and also to blunt the ACTH secretion, the major driver

Open access

Boni Xiang, Ran Tao, Xinhua Liu, Xiaoming Zhu, Min He, Zengyi Ma, Yehong Yang, Zhaoyun Zhang, Yiming Li, Zhenwei Yao, Yongfei Wang, and Hongying Ye

Introduction Cushing’s syndrome (CS) comprises diverse manifestations resulting from chronic exposure to excess glucocorticoids. The incidence is 0.2–5.0 per million people per year. Approximately 80% of endogenous CS is adrenocorticotrophin