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Janko Sattler, Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Jingbao Li, Frank Buttgereit, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou, and Mark S Cooper

Background Acute inflammation is typically associated with an activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which results in an increase in the level of glucocorticoids within the circulation ( 1 ). In situations where this

Open access

Sirazum Choudhury, Tricia Tan, Katharine Lazarus, and Karim Meeran

Introduction Between 1928 and 1938, patients with Addison’s disease had a 100% 5-year mortality ( 1 ). With the availability of glucocorticoid replacement therapy, initially with animal adrenocortical extract and later synthetic 11

Open access

Eva Novoa, Marcel Gärtner, and Christoph Henzen

Introduction Intratympanic glucocorticoids are effective in the treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) (1, 2, 3) , in the stabilization of Ménière's disease (MD) (4) , and in autoimmune ear disorders (5) . By the intratympanic

Open access

Sarah Zaheer, Kayla Meyer, Rebecca Easly, Omar Bayomy, Janet Leung, Andrew W Koefoed, Mahyar Heydarpour, Roy Freeman, and Gail K Adler

). Glucocorticoids also have a negative impact on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway leading to an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, and thereby contributing to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis ( 1 , 3 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ). In mice, glucocorticoids

Open access

David J F Smith, Hemanth Prabhudev, Sirazum Choudhury, and Karim Meeran

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is caused either by primary adrenal failure or secondary impairment of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis ( 1 ). Both result in glucocorticoid deficiency with additional impairment of

Open access

Tatiana V Novoselova, Peter J King, Leonardo Guasti, Louise A Metherell, Adrian J L Clark, and Li F Chan

Hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dictates the production of glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal gland. Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

Open access

Masafumi Tetsuka and Misato Tanakadate

, 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). Recently, we have demonstrated that the bovine oocyte cumulus complex (COC) undergoing IVM expresses two types of glucocorticoid metabolizing enzymes, namely 11β-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase type1 (HSD11B1) and type2 (HSD11B

Open access

R A M Quax, J A M van Laar, R van Heerebeek, K Greiner, E Ben-Chetrit, M Stanford, G R Wallace, F Fortune, M Ghabra, M Soylu, J M W Hazes, S W J Lamberts, J H Kappen, P M van Hagen, J W Koper, and R A Feelders

dysfunctional humoral immune response. In general, BD might be regarded an immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Glucocorticoids (GC) play a key role in mediating a balanced inflammatory response. GCs exert their effects via interaction with the GC receptor (GR

Open access

Lia Ferreira, João Silva, Susana Garrido, Carlos Bello, Diana Oliveira, Hélder Simões, Isabel Paiva, Joana Guimarães, Marta Ferreira, Teresa Pereira, Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Ana Filipa Martins, Tiago Silva, Vera Fernandes, Maria Lopes Pereira, and Adrenal Tumors Study Group of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology

abnormal standard dose ACTH stimulation test (peak plasma cortisol <18 µg/dL); (3) characteristic clinical signs and symptoms such as hyperpigmentation, salt craving, typical electrolyte disturbances and chronic treatment with glucocorticoids and

Open access

Fernando Aprile-Garcia, María Antunica-Noguerol, Maia Ludmila Budziñski, Ana C Liberman, and Eduardo Arzt

signals that begins in the brain and ends with glucocorticoid (GC) secretion (cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rats, mice, and other species). When stimulated, neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus release corticotropin