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Siphiwe N Dlamini, Zané Lombard, Lisa K Micklesfield, Nigel Crowther, Shane A Norris, Tracy Snyman, Andrew A Crawford, Brian R Walker, and Julia H Goedecke

that included both African men and women suggested more evidence of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in African males compared to their European ancestry counterparts, and the HPA axis dysregulation was associated with an

Open access

Trevor Lewis, Eva Zeisig, and Jamie E Gaida

class of steroid hormones present in almost every cell of the body and are essential for survival ( 13 ). Glucocorticoid release is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus releases

Open access

Carolina Inda, Natalia G Armando, Paula A dos Santos Claro, and Susana Silberstein

are essential to the stress response driving both basal and stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) activation. Besides the hypothalamus, CRH is widely distributed in extrahypothalamic circuits of the brain where it functions as a

Open access

C E Higham, A Olsson-Brown, P Carroll, T Cooksley, J Larkin, P Lorigan, D Morganstein, P J Trainer, and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

should be re-evaluated once stable to confirm diagnosis and at intermittent intervals to assess for HPA axis recovery. Immunotherapy can be continued once patient clinically stable on appropriate endocrine replacement therapy. Declaration

Open access

Filippo Ceccato, Elisa Selmin, Chiara Sabbadin, Miriam Dalla Costa, Giorgia Antonelli, Mario Plebani, Mattia Barbot, Corrado Betterle, Marco Boscaro, and Carla Scaroni

). The most common cause of acquired and persistent SAI in adults is a result of a pituitary tumor: its mass effect or pituitary-directed treatments (surgery/radiotherapy) may impair hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function ( 3 , 4

Open access

Greta B Raglan, Louis A Schmidt, and Jay Schulkin

, such as that which a shy or fearful child might experience, influences the expression of CRH in both the amygdala and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in rats ( 41 , 42 ). Conclusion Glucocorticoids are not just related to stress

Open access

Alexander Tacey, Lewan Parker, Bu B Yeap, John Joseph, Ee M Lim, Andrew Garnham, David L Hare, Tara Brennan-Speranza, and Itamar Levinger

Introduction Glucocorticoids (GC) are a naturally occurring catabolic steroid, produced by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and regulated by neuroendocrine and immune responses ( 1 , 2 ). Synthetic forms of GC, such as

Open access

Giovanni Tulipano

inhibitor compound C or by dominant negative AMPK. The overexpression of constitutively active AMPK mimicked the effect of AICAR. These data suggest that AMPK directly mediates the effects of starvation and subsequent energy depletion on the HPA axis

Open access

Carlo Cinque, Manuela Zinni, Anna Rita Zuena, Chiara Giuli, Sebastiano G Alemà, Assia Catalani, Paola Casolini, and Roberto Cozzolino

handling and restraint of the animals, with a consequent activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis that quickly leads to secretion of glucocorticoids ( 7 ). For some experimental designs, faecal sampling may be a valid non

Open access

Marloes L P Langelaan, Jérôme M H Kisters, Mirjam M Oosterwerff, and Arjen-Kars Boer

.14712/23362936.2016.2 ) 10.14712/23362936.2016.2 26995200 18 Clow A Hucklebridge F Stalder T Evans P Thorn L. The cortisol awakening response: more than a measure of HPA axis function. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 2010 35 97 – 103 . (