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Karim Gariani, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider, and François R Jornayvaz

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis may involve the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) ( 1 ). Common features observed in T2DM and metabolic syndrome, such as elevated fasting glucose, obesity, hyperlipidemia or

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Conor V Dolan, Bibian van der Voorn, Ruth Andrew, Brian R Walker, Hilleke Hulshoff Pol, Dorret I Boomsma, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J J Finken

infectious diseases and are more likely to engage in violent competition ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Moreover, males and females differ in cardiovascular disease susceptibility ( 4 ). Sex differences in HPA-axis settings have been hypothesized to play a role in these

Open access

Huifei Sophia Zheng, Jeffrey G Daniel, Julia M Salamat, Laci Mackay, Chad D Foradori, Robert J Kemppainen, Satyanarayana R Pondugula, Ya-Xiong Tao, and Chen-Che Jeff Huang

negative feedback from the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis ( 2 ). Although GCs have non-genomic actions, they may still rapidly affect gene expression via different mechanisms such as mRNA destabilization and coactivator competition ( 3 , 4

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Ferdinand Roelfsema, Diana van Heemst, Ali Iranmanesh, Paul Takahashi, Rebecca Yang, and Johannes D Veldhuis

Introduction The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is the most important neuroendocrine stress-responsive system, which is of critical importance for survival in mammals ( 1 ). Tightly controlled regulation of the HPA axis is crucial

Open access

Martijn J J Finken, Aleid J G Wirix, Ines A von Rosenstiel-Jadoul, Bibian van der Voorn, Mai J M Chinapaw, Michaela F Hartmann, Joana E Kist-van Holthe, Stefan A Wudy, and Joost Rotteveel

effects on body fat disposition and vascular reactivity. Indeed, childhood obesity has been associated with alterations in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, including increased cortisol production and flattening of early-morning peak

Open access

Ruth Percik, Sherwin Criseno, Safwaan Adam, Kate Young, and Daniel L Morganstein

. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis Hypophysitis and hypopituitarism Pituitary abnormalities are reported in between 1.8 and 18.3% of patients treated with ipilimumab-based regimens ( 17 ), usually resulting in panhypopituitarism, associated with

Open access

Arno Téblick, Lies Langouche, and Greet Van den Berghe

critical illness. (A) The ACTH–cortisol dissociation, that is high levels of cortisol and low levels of ACTH, during the first week of ICU stay. Adapted, with permission, from ( 47 ). (B) The time course of HPA axis alteration beyond the first week of

Open access

Jan W Eriksson, Reem A Emad, Martin H Lundqvist, Niclas Abrahamsson, and Maria C Kjellsson

(GH) ( 10 ). Cortisol secretion is primarily regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which, in turn, is stimulated by corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) via the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. A major physiological effect of

Open access

J Brossaud, V Pallet, and J-B Corcuff

medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line ( 58 ). Vitamin A and the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis There are arguments for an action of RA on the HPA axis. For instance, chronic treatment of young rats by RA increases basal corticosterone

Open access

Anne-Sophie C A M Koning, Philippe C Habets, Marit Bogaards, Jan Kroon, Hanneke M van Santen, Judith M de Bont, and Onno C Meijer

by the adrenal gland via activation of negative feedback mechanisms within the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis ( 14 , 15 ). High dosages of synthetic glucocorticoids will therefore lead to a situation of strong GR activation but, for lack