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Hershel Raff and Hariprasad Trivedi

Introduction The measurement of salivary cortisol has emerged as a first-line test in the evaluation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in humans and, in particular, for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing

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Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík, and Jirˇí Pácha

Introduction Stress is a ubiquitous condition that affects both people and animals. It initiates a series of events, culminating in the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), including

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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern, and Y Greenman

, prolactin and cortisol ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). The stimulation of the HPA axis by ghrelin is exerted predominantly at the hypothalamic level ( 18 ) through vasopressin stimulation ( 19 ) and indirect activation of CRH neurons ( 20 , 21 ). Direct effects of

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Giovanni Fanni, Petros Katsogiannos, Bipasha Nandi Jui, Magnus Sundbom, Susanne Hetty, Maria J Pereira, and Jan W Eriksson

hoc analyses of multiple hormones in patients with obesity and T2DM followed up for 2 years after RYGB. We highlight the novel findings on the responses of GH and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis to oral glucose following RYGB. For the

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Fahim Ebrahimi, Sandrine A Urwyler, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Luca Bernasconi, Peter Neyer, Marc Y Donath, and Mirjam Christ-Crain

leads to an increased activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis with excess of glucocorticoids which are known to increase the risk for metabolic complications and cardiovascular mortality ( 6 ). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is known to

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Jonneke J Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Noera Kieviet, Koert M Dolman, Yolanda B de Rijke, Erica L T van den Akker, Joost Rotteveel, Adriaan Honig, and Martijn J J Finken

fetal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which are protective in the short term, but might pose a risk in the long term ( 3 ). The development of the fetal HPA axis is, among other factors, influenced by the placental transfer of maternal GCs

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Ferdinand Roelfsema, Peter Y Liu, Rebecca Yang, Paul Takahashi, and Johannes D Veldhuis

deficit. This focus complements the earlier study of IL-2’s suppressive effect on the gonadotropic axis in the same cohort of volunteers ( 6 ). Aging is also associated with increased systemic inflammation ( 7 ) and regulation of the HPA axis is age

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S U Jayasinghe, S J Torres, C A Nowson, A J Tilbrook, and A I Turner

independent of the salivary flow rate (11) and that its response to Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is predictive of the plasma catecholamine response to TSST (13) . Activation of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis by stress results in the

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Ida Staby, Jesper Krogh, Marianne Klose, Jonas Baekdal, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Lars Poulsgaard, Jacob Bertram Springborg, and Mikkel Andreassen

Sheridan B Atkinson AB . Comparison of one week 0900 h serum cortisol, low and standard dose synacthen tests with a 4 to 6 week insulin hypoglycaemia test after pituitary surgery in assessing HPA axis . Clinical Endocrinology 2000 53 431 – 436

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Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, and Hiroshi Wachi

healthy subjects ( 18 ). An increase in salivary cortisol concentration reflects the response of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) to stress, whereas an increase in plasma catecholamine concentration reflects the response of the (hypothalamus