A systematic review of publications addressing change in vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)) after exposure to UV radiation identified 2001 independent peer-reviewed publications. Of these, 21 used artificial sources of UV radiation, met all inclusion criteria and were quality assured; 13 publications used solar radiation and met sufficient inclusion criteria to be retained as supporting evidence; 1 further included publication used both solar and artificial sources. The review consistently identified that low dose, sub-erythemal doses are more effective for vitamin D synthesis than doses close to a minimum erythema dose; increasing skin area exposed increases the amount of vitamin D synthesised although not necessarily in a linear manner; constant dosing leads to a dose-dependent plateau in 25OHD, and dose–response is greatest at the start of a dosing regime; there is a large interpersonal variation in response to UV exposure. Fourteen of the studies using artificial sources of radiation were used to determine a dose–response relationship for change in 25OHD on whole-body exposure to repeated sub-erythemal doses of UV radiation, taking the form Δ25OHD (nmol/L) = A ln(standard vitamin D dose) + B. This helps quantify our understanding of UV as a source of vitamin D and enables exposure regimes for safe synthesis of vitamin D to be assessed. Specific studies of people with pigmented skin (Fitzpatrick skin types 5 and 6) were rare, and this dose–response relationship is only applicable to white-skinned individuals as skin type is a determinant of response to UV radiation. Findings provide information for vitamin D guidance updates.
Ann R Webb, Rehab Alghamdi, Richard Kift, and Lesley E Rhodes
Gunjan Garg, Garima Kachhawa, Rekha Ramot, Rajesh Khadgawat, Nikhil Tandon, V Sreenivas, Alka Kriplani, and N Gupta
To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on parameters of insulin sensitivity/resistance (IS/IR) and insulin secretion in subjects with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). A prospective double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of vitamin D on insulin kinetics in women with PCOS. The trial was conducted in a tertiary care research hospital. A total of 36 subjects with PCOS, aged 18–35 years, were included in this study. Vitamin D3 4000 IU/day versus placebo was given once a month for 6 months and both groups received metformin. IS (by whole-body IS index or Matsuda index), IR (by homeostasis model assessment IR (HOMA-IR)), and insulin secretion (by insulinogenic index; II30) were the main outcome measures. Secondary outcome included blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, disposition index (DI), and vascular stiffness. Out of 36 subjects who consented, 32 completed the study. Subjects were randomized into two groups: group A (n=15; metformin and vitamin D 4000 IU/day) or group B (n=17; metformin and placebo). Oral glucose tolerance tests with 75 g glucose were carried out at baseline and 6 months after supplementation. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 93.8% of all subjects with mean serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D level of 7.30±4.45 ng/ml. After 6 months of vitamin D supplementation, there was no significant difference in any of the parameters of IS/IR (area under curve (AUC)–glucose, AUC–insulin, insulin:glucose ratio, HOMA-IR, Matsuda index, insulinogenic index, and DI), II30, and cardiovascular risk factors between the two groups. Supplementation of vitamin D, at a dose of 4000 IU/day for 6 months, did not have any significant effect on parameters of IS/IR and insulin secretion in subjects with PCOS.
Karolien Van De Maele, Jean De Schepper, Jesse Vanbesien, Monique Van Helvoirt, Ann De Guchtenaere, and Inge Gies
Vitamin D deficiency is common in obese adolescents and a risk factor for insulin resistance. We investigated if prevailing serum 25-OH vitamin D might predict the body fat loss in a group of obese adolescents undergoing a residential weight loss program.
In 92 (35 male) obese adolescents (aged 10.6–19 years) undergoing a residential weight loss program in Belgium, fasting serum 25-OH vitamin D (25-OH-D), insulin, glucose and lipid levels were measured and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
Baseline median (range) serum 25-OH-D level was 17.7 µg/L (3.8–41.8). In total, 55 adolescents had a serum 25-OH-D below 20 µg/L. In 31 adolescents with a low baseline 25-OH-D level, median increase in serum 25-OH-D was 2.4 µg/L (−4.2 to 7.2) after 10 months. This resulted in normal 25-OH-D levels in seven adolescents, whereas median BMI decreased with 1.0 SDS and body fat percentage diminished with 9.9%. Obese adolescents with or without a 25-OH-D level below or above 20 µg/L at baseline had similar changes in body weight, BMI SDS, body fat percentage and body fat mass at the end of the program. The change in serum 25-OH-D did not correlate with change in serum insulin, BMI SDS or body fat percentage and body fat mass.
Vitamin D deficiency was present in 55 out of 92 obese adolescents at the start of the summer. Serum 25-OH-D concentration did not predict changes in body fat loss after a residential weight loss program.
Jean-Philippe Bertocchio, Natalie Grosset, Lionel Groussin, Peter Kamenický, Fabrice Larceneux, Anne Lienhardt-Roussie, Agnès Linglart, Gérard Maruani, Eric Mirallie, François Pattou, Riyad N H Seervai, Coralie Sido, Caroline Silve, Aurélie Vilfaillot, Antoine Tabarin, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Pascal Houillier, and the investigators of the Épi-Hypo study
Recent guidelines have provided recommendations for the care of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism. Very little is known about actual physicians’ practices or their adherence to such guidelines.
To describe the physicians’ practice patterns and their compliance with international guidelines.
The cohort studies included were Épi-Hypo (118 physicians and 107 patients, from September 2016 to December 2019) and ePatients (110 patients, November 2019).
Internet-based cohorts involving all settings at a nationwide level (France). Participants were (i) physicians treating patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism and patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism either participating in the (ii) Épi-Hypo study (Épi-Hypo 2019 patients), or (iii) Hypoparathyroidism France, the national representative association (ePatients).
The physicians’ specialties were mainly endocrinology (61%), nephrology (28%), family medicine (2.5%), pediatrics (2.5%), rheumatology (2%), or miscellaneous (4%) and 45% were practicing in public universities. The median number of pharmaceutical drug classes prescribed was three per patient. The combination of active vitamin D and calcium salt was given to 59 and 58% of ePatients and Épi-Hypo 2019 patients, respectively. Eighty-five percent of ePatients and 87% of physicians reported monitoring plasma calcium concentrations at a steady state at least twice a year. In 32 and 26% of cases, respectively, ePatients and physicians reported being fully in accordance with international guidelines that recommend targeting symptoms, plasma calcium and phosphate values, and urine calcium excretion.
The care of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism involves physicians with very different practices, so guidelines should include and target other specialists as well as endocrinologists. Full adherence to the guidelines is low in France.
Vito Francic, Martin Keppel, Verena Schwetz, Christian Trummer, Marlene Pandis, Valentin Borzan, Martin R Grübler, Nicolas D Verheyen, Marcus E Kleber, Graciela Delgado, Angela P Moissl, Benjamin Dieplinger, Winfried März, Andreas Tomaschitz, Stefan Pilz, and Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch
Cardiovascular disease manifestation and several associated surrogate markers, such as vitamin D, have shown substantial seasonal variation. A promising cardiovascular biomarker, soluble ST2 (sST2), has not been investigated in this regard – we therefore determined if systemic levels of sST2 are affected by seasonality and/or vitamin D in order to investigate their clinical interrelation and usability.
sST2 levels were measured in two cohorts involving hypertensive patients at cardiovascular risk, the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial (study A; RCT design, 8 weeks 2800 IU cholecalciferol daily) and the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (LURIC; study B; cross-sectional design).
The effects of a vitamin D intervention on sST2 levels were determined in study A using ANCOVA, while seasonality of sST2 levels was determined in study B using ANOVA.
The concentrations of sST2 remained unchanged by a vitamin D intervention in study A, with a mean treatment effect (95% confidence interval) of 0.1 (−0.6 to 0.8) ng/mL; P = 0.761), despite a rise in 25(OH)D (11.3 (9.2–13.5) ng/mL; P < 0.001) compared to placebo. In study B, seasonal variations were present in 25(OH)D levels in men and women with or without heart failure (P < 0.001 for all subgroups), while sST2 levels remained unaffected by the seasons in all subgroups.
Our study provides the first evidence that systemic sST2 levels are not interrelated with vitamin D levels or influenced by the seasons in subjects at cardiovascular risk.
A Gizard, A Rothenbuhler, Z Pejin, G Finidori, C Glorion, B de Billy, A Linglart, and P Wicart
X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) is due to mutations in PHEX leading to unregulated production of FGF23 and hypophosphatemia. XLHR is characterized by leg bowing of variable severity. Phosphate supplements and oral vitamin analogs, partially or, in some cases, fully restore the limb straightness. Surgery is the alternative for severe or residual limb deformities.
To retrospectively assess the results of surgical limb correction in XLHR (osteotomies and bone alignment except for 3 transient hemiepiphysiodesis).
We analyzed the incidence of recurrence and post-surgical complications in 49 XLHR patients (29F, 20M) (mean age at diagnosis 6.0 years (± 7.1)).
At first surgery, the mean age was 13.4 years (± 5.0). Recurrence was observed in 14/49 (29%) patients. The number of additional operations significantly decreased with age (2.0 (± 0.9), 1.7 (± 1.0) and 1.2 (± 0.4) in children <11 years, between 11 and 15, and >15 years; P < 0.001). Incidence of recurrence seemed to be lower in patients with good metabolic control of the rickets (25% vs 33%). Complications were observed in 57% of patients.
We report a large series of surgical procedures in XLHR. Our results confirm that phosphate supplements and vitamin D analog therapy is the first line of treatment to correct leg bowing. Surgery before puberty is associated with a high risk of recurrence of the limb deformity. Such procedures should only be recommended, following multidisciplinary discussions, in patients with severe distortion leading to mechanical joint and ligament complications, or for residual deformities once growth plates have fused.
Zhen-yu Song, Qiuming Yao, Zhiyuan Zhuo, Zhe Ma, and Gang Chen
Previous studies investigating the association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with prognosis of prostate cancer yielded controversial results. We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis to elucidate the relationship. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies up to July 15, 2018. We performed a dose–response meta-analysis using random-effect model to calculate the summary hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI of mortality in patients with prostate cancer. Seven eligible cohort studies with 7808 participants were included. The results indicated that higher vitamin D level could reduce the risk of death among prostate cancer patients. The summary HR of prostate cancer-specific mortality correlated with an increment of every 20 nmol/L in circulating vitamin D level was 0.91, with 95% CI 0.87–0.97, P = 0.002. The HR for all-cause mortality with the increase of 20 nmol/L vitamin D was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, P = 0.01). Sensitivity analysis suggested the pooled HRs were stable and not obviously changed by any single study. No evidence of publications bias was observed. This meta-analysis suggested that higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was associated with a reduction of mortality in prostate cancer patients and vitamin D is an important protective factor in the progression and prognosis of prostate cancer.
Maria Luisa Brandi, Stefania Bandinelli, Teresa Iantomasi, Francesca Giusti, Eleonora Talluri, Giovanna Sini, Fabrizio Nannipieri, Santina Battaglia, Riccardo Giusti, Colin Gerard Egan, and Luigi Ferrucci
This study aimed to evaluate the association between the endocrine-disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA) on circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OD)D) and other vitamin D metabolites in an elderly population in Italy.
This was a retrospective analysis of the InCHIANTI Biobank in Italy. The association between vitamin D metabolites namely 1,25(OH)D, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and BPA levels were evaluated. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between predictor variables with 1,25(OH)D or 25(OH)D levels.
Samples from 299 individuals aged 72.8 ± 15.7 years were examined. Mean levels of BPA, 1,25(OH)D and 25(OH)D were 351.2 ± 511.6 ng/dL, 43.7 ± 16.9 pg/mL and 20.2 ± 12.1 ng/mL, respectively. One hundred eighty individuals (60.2%) were deficient (<20 ng/mL) in 25(OH)D and this population also presented higher BPA levels (527.9 ± 1289.5 ng/dL vs 86.9 ± 116.8 ng/dL, P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis revealed that BPA levels were negatively correlated with both 1,25(OH)D (r= −0.67, P < 0.0001) and 25(OH)D (r= −0.69, P < 0.0001). Multivariate regression revealed that PTH (β: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.34, −0.13, P < 0.0001) and BPA (β: −0.25, 95% CI: −0.3, −0.19, P < 0.0001) remained significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels while BPA was also associated with 1,25(OH)D levels (β: −0.19, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.15, P < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a BPA concentration of >113 ng/dL was the best cut-off to predict individuals deficient in 25(OH)D (area under the curve: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82–0.90, P < 0.0001).
The strong negative association between BPA and vitamin D in this elderly population warrants further investigation, particularly since this population is already at greatest risk of hypovitaminosis and fracture.
Eliana Piantanida, Daniela Gallo, Giovanni Veronesi, Eugenia Dozio, Eugenia Trotti, Adriana Lai, Silvia Ippolito, Jessica Sabatino, Maria Laura Tanda, Antonio Toniolo, Marco Ferrario, and Luigi Bartalena
The aim of this observational study was to clarify the link between vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with visceral obesity.
Design and methods
One hundred ninety-six consecutive patients (152 women; mean age 51 ± 13 years) with visceral obesity (mean body weight 103 ± 20 kg, mean waist circumference (WC) 119 ± 13 cm) were enrolled at the Obesity Outpatient Clinic of the University of Insubria in Varese. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Laboratory tests, including vitamin D (25(OH)D)), fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests were assessed. Vitamin D status was defined according to the European Society of Endocrinology guidelines, MetS to the 2009 harmonized definition.
An inverse association emerged among 25(OH)D, body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.001) and WC (all P = 0.003). Serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely related to FBG and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (respectively, P = 0.01 and 0.02). Median serum 25(OH)D levels were 13.3 ng/mL (CI 95% 12; 15) in MetS and 16 ng/mL (CI 95% 14; 18) (P = 0.01) in non-MetS patients. Among patients with MetS, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were related to higher risk of hypertension (HT) (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, CI 95%, 0.7;4) and hyperglycemia (IFG)/type 2 diabetes (OR 5.5, CI 95% 2; 14).
Vitamin D status and MetS are inversely correlated in visceral obesity, particularly with regard to glucose homeostasis and BP. More extensive studies are required to investigate the potential for causality.
Marc Blondon, Emmanuel Biver, Olivia Braillard, Marc Righini, Pierre Fontana, and Alessandro Casini
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risks of arterial and venous cardiovascular events. Hypothetically, supplementation with vitamin D may lead to a less prothrombotic phenotype, as measured by global coagulation assays and fibrin clot structure.
In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled adult outpatients attending the Primary Care Division of the Geneva University Hospitals with a severe vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25-OHD) <25 nmol/L), excluding obese patients or with a recent acute medical event. We evaluated changes in coagulation times, thrombin generation assay, clot formation and clot lysis time, 25-OHD and parathormone before and 1–3 months after cholecalciferol oral supplementation with one-time 300,000 IU then 800 IU daily. Paired t-tests with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 compared absolute mean differences.
The 48 participants had a mean age of 43.8 ± 13.8 years. After supplementation, 25-OHD levels increased from 17.9 ± 4.6 nmol/L to 62.5 ± 20.7 nmol/L 6.4 ± 3.0 weeks after inclusion. Endogenous thrombin potential and thrombin generation peak values both decreased significantly (−95.4 nM × min (95%CI −127.9 to −62.8), P < 0.001; −15.1 nM (−23.3 to −6.8), P < 0.001). The maximum absorbance by turbidimetry decreased significantly (P = 0.001) after supplementation. There was no change in clot lysis time, coagulation times or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and homocysteine levels.
In severe vitamin D deficiency, a high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation was associated with a reduction in thrombin generation and an average decreased number of fibrin protofibrils per fibers and fibrin fiber size measured by turbidimetry. This suggests that severe vitamin D deficiency may be associated with a potentially reversible prothrombotic profile.