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Open access

Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Marina Tsoli, Gregory Kaltsas, and Polyzois Makras

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of not well-defined etiology that involves immune cell activation and frequently affects the skeleton. Bone involvement in LCH usually presents in the form of osteolytic lesions along with low bone mineral density. Various molecules involved in bone metabolism are implicated in the pathogenesis of LCH or may be affected during the course of the disease, including interleukins (ILs), tumor necrosis factor α, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its soluble ligand RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), periostin and sclerostin. Among them IL-17A, periostin and RANKL have been proposed as potential serum biomarkers for LCH, particularly as the interaction between RANK, RANKL and OPG not only regulates bone homeostasis through its effects on the osteoclasts but also affects the activation and survival of immune cells. Significant changes in circulating and lesional RANKL levels have been observed in LCH patients irrespective of bone involvement. Standard LCH management includes local or systematic administration of corticosteroids and chemotherapy. Given the implication of RANK, RANKL and OPG in the pathogenesis of the disease and the osteolytic nature of bone lesions, agents aiming at inhibiting the RANKL pathway and/or osteoclastic activation, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, may have a role in the therapeutic approach of LCH although further clinical investigation is warranted.

Open access

Alessandro Brancatella and Claudio Marcocci

Thyroid hormones stimulate bone turnover in adults by increasing osteoclastic bone resorption. TSH suppressive therapy is usually applied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) to improve the disease outcome. Over the last decades several authors have closely monitored the potential harm suffered by the skeletal system. Several studies and meta-analyses have shown that chronic TSH suppressive therapy is safe in premenopausal women and men. Conversely, in postmenopausal women TSH suppressive therapy is associated with a decrease of bone mineral density, deterioration of bone architecture (quantitative CT, QCT; trabecular bone score, TBS), and, possibly, an increased risk of fractures. The TSH receptor is expressed in bone cells and the results of experimental studies in TSH receptor knockout mice and humans on whether low TSH levels, as opposed to solely high thyroid hormone levels, might contribute to bone loss in endogenous or exogenous thyrotoxicosis remain controversial. Recent guidelines on the use of TSH suppressive therapy in patients with DTC give value not only to its benefit on the outcome of the disease, but also to the risks associated with exogenous thyrotoxicosis, namely menopause, osteopenia or osteoporosis, age >60 years, and history of atrial fibrillation. Bone health (BMD and/or preferably TBS) should be evaluated in postmenopausal women under chronic TSH suppressive therapy or in those patients planning to be treated for several years. Antiresorptive therapy could also be considered in selected cases (increased risk of fracture or significant decline of BMD/TBS during therapy) to prevent bone loss.

Open access

Keina Nishio, Akiko Tanabe, Risa Maruoka, Kiyoko Nakamura, Masaaki Takai, Tatsuharu Sekijima, Satoshi Tunetoh, Yoshito Terai, and Masahide Ohmichi

Objective

Although surgical menopause may increase the risks of osteoporosis, few studies have investigated the influence of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of treatments for gynecological malignancies on bone mineral density (BMD).

Methods

This study enrolled 35 premenopausal women (15 ovarian cancers (OCs), 9 endometrial cancers (ECs), and 11 cervical cancers (CCs)) who underwent surgical treatment that included bilateral oophorectomy with or without adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in OC and EC patients, or concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) in CC patients according to the established protocols at the Osaka Medical College Hospital between 2006 and 2008. The BMD of the lumbar spine (L1–L4) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and urine cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were assessed for evaluation of bone resorption and bone formation respectively. These assessments were performed at baseline and 12 months after treatment.

Results

Although the serum BAP was significantly increased only in the CC group, a rapid increase in the bone resorption marker urinary NTx was observed in all groups. The BMD, 12 months after CCRT was significantly decreased in the CC group at 91.9±5.9% (P<0.05 in comparison to the baseline).

Conclusion

This research suggests that anticancer therapies for premenopausal women with gynecological malignancies increase bone resorption and may reduce BMD, particularly in CC patients who have received CCRT. Therefore, gynecologic cancer survivors should be educated about these potential risks and complications.

Open access

Elinor Chelsom Vogt, Francisco Gómez Real, Eystein Sverre Husebye, Sigridur Björnsdottir, Bryndis Benediktsdottir, Randi Jacobsen Bertelsen, Pascal Demoly, Karl Anders Franklin, Leire Sainz de Aja Gallastegui, Francisco Javier Callejas González, Joachim Heinrich, Mathias Holm, Nils Oscar Jogi, Benedicte Leynaert, Eva Lindberg, Andrei Malinovschi, Jesús Martínez-Moratalla, Raúl Godoy Mayoral, Anna Oudin, Antonio Pereira-Vega, Chantal Raherison Semjen, Vivi Schlünssen, Kai Triebner, and Marianne Oksnes

Objective: To investigate markers of premature menopause (<40 years), and specifically the prevalence of autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in European women.

Design: Postmenopausal women were categorized according to age at menopause and self-reported reason for menopause in a cross-sectional analysis of 6870 women.

Methods: Variables associated with timing of menopause and hormone measurements of 17β-estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were explored using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Specific immunoprecipitating assays of steroidogenic autoantibodies against 21-hydroxylase (21-OH), side chain cleavage enzyme (anti-SCC) and 17alpha-hydroxylase (17 OH) as well as NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 (NALP5) were used to identify women with likely autoimmune POI.

Results: Premature menopause was identified in 2.8% of women, and these women had higher frequencies of nulliparity (37.4% vs 19.7%), obesity (28.7% vs 21.4%), osteoporosis (17.1% vs 11.6%), hormone replacement therapy (59.1% vs 36.9%) and never smokers (60.1% vs 50.9%), (p<0.05), compared to women with menopause ≥ 40 years. Iatrogenic causes were found in 91 (47%) and non-ovarian causes in 27 (14%) women, while 77 (39%) women were classified as POI of unknown cause, resulting in a 1.1% prevalence of idiopathic POI. After adjustments nulliparity was the only variable significantly associated with POI (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.63-3.42). Based on the presence of autoantibodies against 21 OH and SCC, 4.5% of POI cases were of likely autoimmune origin.

Conclusion: Idiopathic POI affects 1.1% of all women and almost half of women with premature menopause. Autoimmunity explains 4.5% of these cases judged by positive steroidogenic autoantibodies.

Open access

Anna Gorbacheva, Anna Eremkina, Daria Goliusova, Julia Krupinova, and Natalia Mokrysheva

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most common cause of hereditary primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Bone disorders are considered one of the key symptoms in PHPT present with the significant reduction in bone mineral density and low-energy fractures. Previously, these bone disorders were believed to be caused solely by the increase in the level of parathyroid hormone and its subsequent effect on bone resorption. The current paradigm, however, states that the mutations in the menin gene, which cause the development of MEN1, can also affect the metabolism of the cells of the osteoid lineage. This review analyzes both the proven and the potential intracellular mechanisms through which menin can affect bone metabolism.

Open access

Emmanuelle Noirrit, Mélissa Buscato, Marion Dupuis, Bernard Payrastre, Coralie Fontaine, Jean-François Arnal, and Marie-Cécile Valera

Estrogen–progestin therapy was previously considered as the standard of care for managing bothersome symptoms associated with menopause, but it increases risks of breast cancer and of thromboembolism. The combination of conjugated estrogen (CE) with bazedoxifene (BZA) named tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC) was designed to minimize or even abrogate the undesirable effects on breast, while maintaining the beneficial effects such as prevention of osteoporosis and suppression of climacteric symptoms. The risk on thromboembolism associated with TSEC is unknown, although the clinical available data are reassuring. The aim of this study was to define the impact of a chronic administration of CE, BZA or CE + BZA on hemostasis and thrombosis in ovariectomized mice. As expected, CE, but not BZA neither CE + BZA, induced uterine and vagina hypertrophy. As previously demonstrated for 17β-estradiol (E2), we found that CE (i) increased tail-bleeding time, (ii) prevented occlusive thrombus formation in injured carotid artery and (iii) protected against collagen/epinephrine-induced thromboembolism. Thus, whereas BZA antagonized CE action on reproductive tissues, it had no impact on the effect of CE on hemostasis, thromboembolism and arterial thrombosis in mice. CE + BZA shared the anti-thrombotic actions of CE in these mouse models. If a similar process is at work in women, CE combined with BZA could contribute to minimize the risk of thrombosis associated with hormone replacement therapy.

Open access

Cristina Lamas, Elena Navarro, Anna Casterás, Paloma Portillo, Victoria Alcázar, María Calatayud, Cristina Álvarez-Escolá, Julia Sastre, Evangelina Boix, Lluis Forga, Almudena Vicente, Josep Oriola, Jordi Mesa, and Nuria Valdés

Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Bone and renal complications are common. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but the best timing for surgery is controversial and predictors of persistence and recurrence are not well known. Our study describes the clinical characteristics and the surgical outcomes, after surgery and in the long term, of the patients with MEN1 and primary hyperparathyroidism included in the Spanish Registry of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas (REGMEN). Eighty-nine patients (49 men and 40 women, 34.2 ± 13 years old) were included. Sixty-four out of the 89 underwent surgery: a total parathyroidectomy was done in 13 patients, a subtotal parathyroidectomy in 34 and a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy in 15. Remission rates were higher after a total or a subtotal parathyroidectomy than after a less than subtotal (3/4 and 20/22 vs 7/12, P < 0.05), without significant differences in permanent hypoparathyroidism (1/5, 9/23 and 0/11, N.S.). After a median follow-up of 111 months, 20 of the 41 operated patients with long-term follow-up had persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. We did not find differences in disease-free survival rates between different techniques, patients with or without permanent hypoparathyroidism and patients with different mutated exons, but a second surgery was more frequent after a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy.

Open access

Panagiotis Anagnostis, Irene Lambrinoudaki, John C Stevenson, and Dimitrios G Goulis

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of major concern in women entering menopause. The changing hormonal milieu predisposes them to increased CVD risk, due to a constellation of risk factors, such as visceral obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysregulation in glucose homeostasis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and arterial hypertension. However, an independent association of menopause per se with increased risk of CVD events has only been proven for early menopause (<45 years). Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) ameliorates most of the CVD risk factors mentioned above. Transdermal estrogens are the preferable regimen, since they do not increase triglyceride concentrations and they are not associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Although administration of MHT should be considered on an individual basis, MHT may reduce CVD morbidity and mortality, if commenced during the early postmenopausal period (<60 years or within ten years since the last menstrual period). In women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), MHT should be administered at least until the average age of menopause (50–52 years). MHT is contraindicated in women with a history of VTE and is not currently recommended for the sole purpose of CVD prevention. The risk of breast cancer associated with MHT is generally low and is mainly conferred by the progestogen. Micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone are associated with lower risk compared to other progestogens.

Open access

Sofya Gronskaia, Galina Melnichenko, Liudmila Rozhinskaya, Tatiana Grebennikova, Elizaveta Mamedova, Ekaterina Pigarova, Elena Przhialkovskaya, Larisa Dzeranova, Ivan Dedov, Valentin Fadeyev, Maria Luisa Brandi, and Zhanna Belaya

Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rare endocrine disorders, characterized by low serum calcium due to inappropriate parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels or resistance to its action. There is little epidemiological information regarding chronic hypoparathyroidism in Russia. This study aims to build a registry database of Russian patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism who were referred for hospital treatment in order to conduct initial analysis of clinical presentations and hospital management. The Italian registry model was taken to be able to integrate our data in the future. Two hundred patients with hypoparathyroidism (n = 194) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (n = 6) were enrolled over 2 years (2017–2019). The most frequent cause of hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (82.5%, mostly females), followed by idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (10%), syndromic forms of genetic hypoparathyroidism (4.5%) and forms of defective PTH action (3%). Calcium supplements and alfacalcidol were prescribed in most cases. However, a minority of patients (n = 6) needed to receive teriparatide as the only way to maintain calcium levels and to prevent symptoms of hypocalcemia. Consequently, substitution treatment with parathyroid hormone should be available in certain cases of hypoparathyroidism. This database will be useful to estimate the potential requirement for recombinant PTH in Russia and standards for clinical and therapeutic approaches.

Open access

Henryk F Urbanski, Kevin Mueller, and Cynthia L Bethea

Like women, old female rhesus macaques undergo menopause and show many of the same age-associated changes, including perturbed activity/rest cycles and altered circulating levels of many hormones. Previous studies showed that administration of an estrogen agonist increased activity in female monkeys, that hormone therapy (HT) increased activity in postmenopausal women and that obesity decreased activity in women. The present study sought to determine if postmenopausal activity and circulating hormone levels also respond to HT when monkeys are fed a high-fat, high-sugar Western style diet (WSD). Old female rhesus macaques were ovo-hysterectomized (OvH) to induce surgical menopause and fed a WSD for 2 years. Half of the animals received estradiol-17β (E), beginning immediately after OvH, while the other half received placebo. Animals in both groups showed an increase in body weight and a decrease in overall activity levels. These changes were associated with a rise in both daytime and nocturnal serum leptin concentrations, but there was no change in serum concentrations of either cortisol or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). These data suggest that 2 years of HT has little or no effect on locomotor activity or circadian hormone patterns in menopausal macaques fed an obesogenic diet.