Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder in women of reproductive age. Besides hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea and fertility issues, it is associated with a high prevalence of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors. Several genetic polymorphisms have been identified for possible associations with cardiometabolic derangements in PCOS. Different PCOS phenotypes differ significantly in their cardiometabolic risk, which worsens with severity of androgen excess. Due to methodological difficulties, longer time-scale data about cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS and about possible beneficial effects of different treatment interventions is missing leaving many issues regarding cardiovascular risk unresolved.
Katica Bajuk Studen and Marija Pfeifer
Emanuela Zaharieva, Zdravko Kamenov, Tsvetelina Velikova, Adelina Tsakova, Yosif El-Darawish, and Haruki Okamura
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an inflammatory cytokine found to be elevated in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a part of the chronic low-grade inflammatory process in these states. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interleukin level in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes of the adults (LADA) in comparison to that in T2D subjects.
Materials and methods
IL-18 was analyzed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 76 participants with T2D and 24 with LADA and 14 control subjects. Evaluation was also carried out in body mass index (BMI)- and glycemic control-matched diabetic patients.
The serum concentration of IL-18 was higher in patients with T2D (389.04 ± 203.44 pg/mL) and LADA (327.04 ± 144.48 pg/mL) than that in control subjects (219.88 ± 91.03 pg/mL), P < 0.05. However, it was not significantly different between both diabetic groups (P = 0.255) despite higher IL-6 (4.78 ± 5.84 vs 1.79 ± 0.96 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (2.60 ± 1.70 vs 1.29 ± 1.20 mg/L, P = 0.002) level in T2D patients. The results were persistent in BMI-matched subjects with diabetes (IL-18 = 403.48 ± 226.32 vs 329.30 ± 146.30 pg/mL, respectively for T2D and LADA, P = 0.391). The correlations in T2D group concerning HDL cholesterol (r = −0.377, P = 0.001), postprandial glucose (r = 0.244, P = 0.043), IL-6 (r = 0.398, P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (r = 0.427, P = 0.001) were not confirmed in LADA and control subjects.
The IL-18 serum level was higher in T2D and LADA than that in control subjects, but did not differ between both diabetic groups, even when they were BMI matched. Correlations with lipid, glycemic and inflammatory parameters were present in T2D only.
B Fabre, G Maccallini, A Oneto, D Gonzalez, V Hirschler, C Aranda, and G Berg
Saliva is a useful sample as a source of hormones for the diagnosis of different diseases, particularly in pediatric patients and aged individuals, because saliva offers a noninvasive and stress-free alternative to serum collection. The aim of this study was to validate a salivary insulin method and to check its clinical application in pediatric patients.
Saliva samples were collected from 130 boys and 147 girls aged 6–14 years. Salivary and serum insulin levels were measured with the chemiluminescent automated method Access (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA, USA). Serum blood glucose levels were measured with the glucose oxidase method in an autoanalyzer.
The precision profile of the method was determined for six aliquots of different concentrations from pools of saliva, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.4% for 1 μUI/ml, 4% for 0.5, 8.9% for 0.25, 19% for 0.12, 28% for 0.06, and 38% for 0.03 μUI/ml, being the functional sensibility (concentration corresponding to a 20% CV) 0.12 μUI/ml. Insulin recovery was 100.13%. Salivary insulin levels diminished 29.8% in samples stored during 7 days at 2–8 °C. Differences in insulin values were not observed when samples were stored at −20 °C during 7 days. The methods used to measure salivary and serum insulin correlated significantly (r=0.92, P<0.001). However, at levels of serum insulin >20 μUI/ml, this correlation declined (r=0.57, P=0.083).
The proposed method for salivary insulin measurement showed convenient analytical characteristics.
Adriano N Cury, Verônica T Meira, Osmar Monte, Marília Marone, Nilza M Scalissi, Cristiane Kochi, Luís E P Calliari, and Carlos A Longui
Treatments for Graves' disease (GD) in children and adolescents include oral antithyroid drugs (ATDs), near total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine (RAI). ATDs remain the preferred choice in this age group, but because persistent remission occurs in 30% of cases, RAI is becoming a common option for definitive therapy.
We performed a review of 65 medical records of GD patients under age 19 years who were followed between 1985 and 2005.
The prevalence of GD was higher in females (3:1) and during puberty (for both genders). If no remission was detected during ATD treatment, RAI was indicated when the following criteria were present: non-compliance, relapse, or side effects that were related to ATDs, large goiter, and long-term use of ATDs. The majority of patients developed hypothyroidism within 6 months after RAI. A progressive higher dose regimen was implemented in the last 10 years of the study period. A second RAI dose was necessary in eight cases. During the follow-up period, three pregnancies occurred. One patient with a thyroid nodule and benign cytology was detected.
RAI therapy is effective and safe in the treatment of GD in children and adolescents.
Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Ariadna Zybek-Kocik, Michał Kloska, Paulina Ziółkowska, Agata Czarnywojtek, Jerzy Sowiński, Dorota Mańkowska-Wierzbicka, and Marek Ruchała
Dysregulation of thyroid function has known impact on body metabolism, however, data regarding metabolic outcome after restoration of thyroid function is limited. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of restoration of euthyroidism on serum visfatin, and its associations with insulin resistance and body composition. This is an observational study with consecutive enrollment. Forty-nine hyperthyroid (median age of 34 years) and 44 hypothyroid women (median age of 46 years) completed the study. Laboratory parameters and body composition analysis were assessed before and after the therapy. In the hyperthyroid group, visfatin concentrations increased (P < 0.0001), while glucose concentrations decreased (P < 0.0001). Total body mass and fat mass in the trunk and limbs significantly increased during the treatment. In the hypothyroid group, significant weight loss resulted from decrease of fat and muscle masses in trunk and limbs. Visfatin serum concentrations positively correlated with total fat mass (r = 0.19, P = 0.01) and insulin concentrations (r = 0.17, P = 0.018). In conclusion, restoration of thyroid function is not associated with beneficial changes in body composition, especially among hyperthyroid females.
S U Jayasinghe, S J Torres, C A Nowson, A J Tilbrook, and A I Turner
We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese men aged 50–70 years will have a greater salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and heart rate (HR) responses to psychological stress compared with age matched lean men. Lean (BMI=20–25 kg/m2; n=19) and overweight/obese (BMI=27–35 kg/m2; n=17) men (50–70 years) were subjected to a well-characterised psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) at 1500 h. Concentrations of cortisol and alpha amylase were measured in saliva samples collected every 7–15 min from 1400 to 1700 h. HR was recorded using electrocardiogram. Body weight, BMI, percentage body fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in overweight/obese men compared with lean men. Both groups responded to the TSST with a substantial elevation in salivary cortisol (372%), salivary alpha amylase (123%) and HR (22%). These responses did not differ significantly between the groups (time×treatment interaction for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR; P=0.187, P=0.288, P=0.550, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups for pretreatment values, peak height, difference between pretreatment values and peak height (reactivity) or area under the curve for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase or HR (P>0.05 for all). The results showed that, for men with a moderate level of overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy, the response of salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR to acute psychological stress was not impaired.
Jie Shi, Zhen Yang, Yixin Niu, Weiwei Zhang, Ning Lin, Xiaoyong Li, Hongmei Zhang, Hongxia Gu, Jie Wen, Guang Ning, Li Qin, and Qing Su
A small thigh circumference is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and total mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between thigh circumference and hypertension in the middle-aged and elderly population.
A total of 9520 individuals aged 40 years and older with measurement of thigh circumference were available for analysis. The measurement of thigh circumference was performed directly below the gluteal fold of the thigh. The association of thigh circumference with hypertension was tested in logistic regression analyses and reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI.
Thigh circumference was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol. Compared with the lowest thigh circumference tertile group, the risk of hypertension was significantly lower in the highest tertile group, both in overweight individuals (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.59–0.79, P < 0.001) and obese individuals (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.38–0.70, P < 0.001).
In the present study, large thigh circumference is associated with lower risk of hypertension in overweight and obese Chinese individuals.
Sidsel Mathiesen, Kaspar Sørensen, Marianne Ifversen, Casper P Hagen, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Anders Juul, and Klaus Müller
Longitudinal assessment of testicular function after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is needed to guide clinical follow-up. We investigated dynamics in male reproductive hormones after pediatric HSCT, focusing on pubertal timing and associations with testosterone deficiency and azoospermia in adulthood.
This retrospective, longitudinal study included 39 survivors median 19 years after pediatric HSCT. Serum concentrations of LH, testosterone, FSH, and inhibin B from the time of HSCT, during puberty, and into adulthood were analyzed. Pubertal timing (rise in LH and testosterone) was compared to a reference cohort of 112 healthy boys. Associations between reproductive hormone levels during puberty and adult testicular function (including semen quality) were investigated.
Pubertal induction with testosterone was needed in 6/26 patients who were prepubertal at HSCT. In the remaining patients, pubertal timing was comparable to the reference cohort. However, 9/33 patients (without pubertal induction) developed testosterone deficiency in early adulthood, which was associated with higher LH levels from age 14 to 16 years. Azoospermia in adulthood was found in 18/26 patients without testosterone substitution. Higher FSH and lower inhibin B levels from mid-pubertal age were associated with azoospermia in adulthood, in patients being prepubertal at HSCT.
Our results indicate a substantial risk of deterioration in testicular function after pediatric HSCT, despite normal pubertal timing. Although reproductive hormone levels from mid-puberty indicated adult testicular function, prolonged follow-up into adulthood is needed in these patients, including clinical examination, reproductive hormone analysis, and semen sample for patients interested in their fertility potential.
Mirjana Kocova, Vesna Janevska, and Violeta Anastasovska
Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are found in 30–94% of adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We sought to explore TART appearance through yearly ultrasound examination of testes in young boys with CAH, and its association with metabolic control and genetic mutations.
Twenty-five boys with 21-hydroxylase deficiency in the age group 4–18 years diagnosed during the period 2001–2016 were included in the study. ACTH, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone were measured at 4-month intervals. Growth and BMI were assessed at the time of evaluation. PCR/ACRS method was used for CYP21A2 gene analysis. Testicular ultrasound examination was performed yearly.
TARTs were detected by ultrasound in 8 children at the age of 6–16 years (13.2 years average). Five had salt-wasting form, two had simple virilizing form and one had non-classic form of CAH. Significant differences in the17OHP and androstenedione levels were detected between the boys, adherent and non-adherent to therapy. Inadequate metabolic control was not different in boys with and without TART (11/17 and 5/8 respectively). No significant difference was detected in the distribution of genetic mutations or adherence to therapy between patients with and without TARTs. One patient had a mutation not reported thus far in TART and another developed leukemia.
TART is not rare in young boys with CAH, irrespective of the specific mutation or metabolic control. Ultrasound screening helps timely diagnosis and adjustment of therapy.
Lawrence D Hayes, Peter Herbert, Nicholas F Sculthorpe, and Fergal M Grace
As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P < 0.001) with most increase occurring during preconditioning (~10%; P = 0.007). Free-T was unaffected by conditioning exercise (P = 0.102) but was significantly higher following HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C (P = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men.