Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment could improve CV outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate CV disease risk in patients with AGHD who received GH replacement therapy for up to 10 years as part of NordiNet® IOS (NCT00960128) and the ANSWER Program (NCT01009905). The studies were observational, non-interventional and multicentre, monitoring long-term effectiveness and safety of GH treatment. NordiNet® IOS involved 23 countries (469 sites) across Europe and the Middle East. The ANSWER Program was conducted in the USA (207 sites). This analysis included patients aged 18–75 years who were GH naïve at study entry, who had ≤10 years of GH treatment data and who could be assessed for CV risk for at least 1 follow-up year. The main outcome measure was risk of CV disease by age 75 years, as calculated with the Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium model (Brunner score) using non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol adjusted for age, sex and CV risk factors. The results of this analysis showed that CV risk decreased gradually over the 10-year period for GH-treated patients. The risk was lower for patients treated for 2 and 7 years vs age- and sex-matched control groups (not yet started treatment) (14.51% vs 16.15%; P = 0.0105 and 13.53% vs 16.81%; P = 0.0001, respectively). This suggests that GH treatment in people with AGHD may reduce the risk of CV disease by age 75 years compared with matched controls.
Charlotte Höybye, Beverly M K Biller, Jean-Marc Ferran, Murray B Gordon, Nicky Kelepouris, Navid Nedjatian, Anne H Olsen, and Matthias M Weber
Sophie van Rijn, Kimberly Kuiper, Nienke Bouw, Evelien Urbanus, and Hanna Swaab
Investigating sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) may help in understanding neurodevelopmental pathways underlying the risk for neurobehavioral problems and psychopathology. Knowledge about the neurobehavioral phenotype is needed to improve clinical care and early intervention for children with SCT. This is especially relevant considering the increasing number of early diagnosed children with the recent introduction of noninvasive prenatal screening. The TRIXY Early Childhood Study is a longitudinal study designed to identify early neurodevelopmental risks in children with SCT, aged 1–7 years. This review summarizes the results from the TRIXY Early Childhood Study, focusing on early behavioral symptoms in areas of autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and communication disorders, and underlying neurocognitive mechanisms in domains of language, emotion regulation, executive functioning, and social cognition. Behavioral symptoms were assessed through structured behavior observation and parental questionnaires. Neurocognition was measured using performance tests, eyetracking, and psychophysiological measures of arousal. In total, 209 children aged 1–7 years were included: 107 children with SCT (33 XXX, 50 XXY, and 24 XYY) and 102 age-matched population controls. Study outcomes showed early behavioral symptoms in young children with SCT, and neurocognitive vulnerabilities, already from an early age onward. Neurobehavioral and neurocognitive difficulties tended to become more pronounced with increasing age and were rather robust, independent of specific karyotype, pre/postnatal diagnosis, or ascertainment strategy. A more longitudinal perspective on neurodevelopmental ‘at-risk’ pathways is warranted, also including studies assessing the effectiveness of targeted early interventions. Neurocognitive markers that signal differences in neurodevelopment may prove to be helpful in this. Focusing on early development of language, social cognition, emotion regulation, and executive functioning may help in uncovering early essential mechanisms of (later) neurobehavioral outcome, allowing for more targeted support and early intervention.
Gabriella Oliveira Lima, Alex Luiz Menezes da Silva, Julianne Elba Cunha Azevedo, Chirlene Pinheiro Nascimento, Luana Rodrigues Vieira, Akira Otake Hamoy, Luan Oliveira Ferreira, Verônica Regina Lobato Oliveira Bahia, Nilton Akio Muto, Dielly Catrina Favacho Lopes, and Moisés Hamoy
Low plasma levels of vitamin D causes bone mineral change that can precipitate osteopenia and osteoporosis and could aggravate autoimmune diseases, hypertension and diabetes. The demand for vitamin D supplementation becomes necessary; however, the consumption of vitamin D is not without risks, which its toxicity could have potentially serious consequences related to hypervitaminosis D, such as hypercalcemia and cerebral alterations. Thus, the present study describes the electroencephalographic changes caused by supraphysiological doses of vitamin D in the brain electrical dynamics and the electrocardiographic changes. After 4 days of treatment with vitamin D at a dose of 25,000 IU/kg, the serum calcium levels found were increased in comparison with the control group. The electrocorticogram analysis found a reduction in wave activity in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. For ECG was observed changes with shortened QT follow-up, which could be related to serum calcium concentration. This study presented important evidence about the cerebral and cardiac alterations caused by high doses of vitamin D, indicating valuable parameters in the screening and decision-making process for diagnosing patients with symptoms suggestive of intoxication.
Sophie Howarth, Luca Giovanelli, Catherine Napier, and Simon H Pearce
Autoimmune Addison’s disease (AAD) is defined as primary adrenal insufficiency due to immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortex. This destruction of steroid-producing cells has historically been thought of as an irreversible process, with linear progression from an ACTH-driven compensated phase to overt adrenal insufficiency requiring lifelong glucocorticoid replacement. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that this process may be more heterogeneous than previously thought, with potential for complete or partial recovery of glucocorticoid secretion. Although patients with persistent mineralocorticoid deficiency despite preserved or recovered glucocorticoid function are anecdotally mentioned, few well-documented cases have been reported to date. We present three patients in the United Kingdom who further challenge the long-standing hypothesis that AAD is a progressive, irreversible disease process. We describe one patient with a 4-year history of mineralocorticoid-only Addison’s disease, a patient with spontaneous recovery of adrenal function and one patient with clinical features of adrenal insufficiency despite significant residual cortisol function. All three patients show varying degrees of mineralocorticoid deficiency, suggesting that recovery of zona fasciculata function in the adrenal cortex may occur independently to that of the zona glomerulosa. We outline the current evidence for heterogeneity in the natural history of AAD and discuss possible mechanisms for the recovery of adrenal function.
Jan Roar Mellembakken, Azita Mahmoudan, Lars Mørkrid, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Laure Morin-Papunen, Juha S Tapanainen, Terhi T Piltonen, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Eszter Vanky, Pernille Ravn, Richard Christian Jensen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, and Dorte Glintborg
Obesity is considered to be the strongest predictive factor for cardio-metabolic risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the study was to compare blood pressure (BP) in normal weight women with PCOS and controls matched for age and BMI.
From a Nordic cross-sectional base of 2615 individuals of Nordic ethnicity, we studied a sub cohort of 793 normal weight women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (512 women with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria and 281 age and BMI-matched controls). Participants underwent measurement of BP and body composition (BMI, waist-hip ratio), lipid status, and fasting BG. Data were presented as median (quartiles).
The median age for women with PCOS were 28 (25, 32) years and median BMI was 22.2 (20.7, 23.4) kg/m2. Systolic BP was 118 (109, 128) mmHg in women with PCOS compared to 110 (105, 120) mmHg in controls and diastolic BP was 74 (67, 81) vs 70 (64, 75) mmHg, both P < 0.001. The prevalence of women with BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg was 11.1% (57/512) in women with PCOS vs 1.8% (5/281) in controls, P < 0.001. In women ≥ 35 years the prevalence of BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg was comparable in women with PCOS and controls (12.7% vs 9.8%, P = 0.6). Using multiple regression analyses, the strongest association with BP was found for age, waist circumference, and total cholesterol in women with PCOS.
Normal weight women with PCOS have higher BP than controls. BP and metabolic screening are relevant also in young normal weight women with PCOS.
Franca Genest, Michael Schneider, Andreas Zehnder, Dominik Lieberoth-Leden, and Lothar Seefried
Aging and concurrent constitutional changes as sarcopenia, osteoporosis and obesity are associated with progressive functional decline. Coincidence and mutual interference of this risk factors require further evaluation.
Cross-sectional evaluation of musculoskeletal health in a community-dwelling cohort of men aged 65–90 years. Objectives included descriptive analysis of age-related decline in physical performance, prevalence of osteoporosis (FRAX-Score), sarcopenia (EWGSOP criteria) and obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) and their coincidence/interference.
Based on 507 participants assessed, aging was associated with progressive functional deterioration, regarding power (chair rise test −1.54% per year), performance (usual gait speed −1.38% per year) and muscle force (grip strength −1.52% per year) while muscle mass declined only marginally (skeletal muscle index −0.29% per year). Prevalence of osteoporosis was 41.8% (n = 212) while only 22.9% (n = 116) of the participants met the criteria for sarcopenia and 23.7% (n = 120) were obese. Osteosarcopenia was found in n = 79 (15.6%), sarcopenic obesity was present in 14 men (2.8%). A combination of all three conditions could be confirmed in n = 8 (1.6%). There was an inverse correlation of BMI with physical performance whereas osteoporosis and sarcopenia did not interfere with functional outcomes.
Based on current definitions, there is considerable overlap in the prevalence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia, while obesity appears to be a distinct problem. Functional decline appears to be associated with obesity rather than osteoporosis or sarcopenia. It remains to be determined to what extend obesity itself causes performance deficits or if obesity is merely an indicator of insufficient activity eventually predisposing to functional decline.
Marlena Mueller, Fahim Ebrahimi, Emanuel Christ, Christian Andreas Nebiker, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, and Alexander Kutz
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a prevalent endocrinopathy for which surgery is the only curative option. Parathyroidectomy is primarily recommended in younger and symptomatic patients, while there are still concerns regarding surgical complications in older patients. We therefore assessed the association of age with surgical outcomes in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy in a large population in Switzerland.
Population-based cohort study of adult patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy in Switzerland between 2012 and 2018. The cohort was divided into four age groups (<50 years, 50–64 years, 65–74 years, ≥75 years). The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital postoperative complications. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admission, unplanned 30-day-readmission, and prolonged length of hospital stay.
We studied 2642 patients with a median (IQR) age of 62 (53–71) years. Overall, 111 patients had complications including surgical re-intervention, hypocalcemia, and vocal cord paresis. As compared to <50 year-old patients, older patients had no increased risk for in-hospital complications after surgery (50–64 years: odds ratio (OR): 0.51 (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.92); 65–74 years: OR: 0.72 (95% CI, 0.39 to 1.33); ≥75 years: OR: 1.03 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.95), respectively. There was also no association of age and rates of ICU-admission and unplanned 30-day-readmission, but oldest patients had longer hospital stays (OR: 2.38 (95% CI, 1.57 to 3.60)).
≥50 year-old patients undergoing parathyroidectomy had comparable risk of in-hospital complications as compared with younger ones. These data support parathyroidectomy in even older patients with primary hyperparathyroidism as performed in clinical routine.
Sarantis Livadas, Christina Bothou, Justyna Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Ralitsa Robeva, Andromahi Vryonidou, Jelica Bjekic Macut, Ioannis Androulakis, Milica Opalic, Zadalla Mouslech, Andrej Milewicz, Alessandra Gambineri, Dimitrios Panidis, and Djuro Macut
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, which is the most appropriate way to evaluate dysglycemia in women with PCOS and who are at increased risk are as yet unclear.
Aim of the study
To determine the prevalence of T2DM, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in PCOS women and potential factors to identify those at risk.
Subjects and methods
The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), biochemical/hormonal profile, and ovarian ultrasound data from 1614 Caucasian women with PCOS and 362 controls were analyzed in this cross-sectional multicenter study. The data were categorized according to age and BMI.
Dysglycemia (T2DM, IGT, and IFG according to World Health Organization criteria) was more frequent in the PCOS group compared to controls: 2.2% vs 0.8%, P = 0.04; 9.5% vs 7.4%, P = 0.038; 14.2% vs 9.1%, P = 0.002, respectively. OGTT was essential for T2DM diagnosis, since in 88% of them basal glucose values were inconclusive for diagnosis. The presence of either T2DM or IFG was irrespective of age (P = 0.54) and BMI (P = 0.32), although the latter was associated with IGT (P = 0.021). There was no impact of age and BMI status on the prevalence of T2DM or IFG. Regression analysis revealed a role for age, BMI, fat deposition, androgens, and insulin resistance for dysglycemia. However, none of the factors prevailed as a useful marker employed in clinical practice.
One-third of our cohort of PCOS women with either T2DM or IGT displayed normal fasting glucose values but without confirming any specific predictor for dysglycemic condition. Hence, the evaluation of glycemic status using OGTT in all women with PCOS is strongly supported.
Huda M Elsharkasi, Suet C Chen, Lewis Steell, Shuko Joseph, Naiemh Abdalrahaman, Christie McComb, Blair Johnston, John Foster, Sze Choong Wong, and S Faisal Ahmed
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of 3T-MRI in assessing musculoskeletal health in children and young people.
Bone, muscle and bone marrow imaging was performed in 161 healthy participants with a median age of 15.0 years (range, 8.0, 30.0).
Detailed assessment of bone microarchitecture (constructive interference in the steady state (CISS) sequence, voxel size 0.2 × 0.2 × 0.4 mm3), bone geometry (T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence, voxel size 0.4 × 0.4 × 2 mm3) and bone marrow (1H-MRS, point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) (single voxel size 20 × 20 × 20 mm3) size and muscle adiposity (Dixon, voxel size 1.1 × 1.1 × 2 mm3).
There was an inverse association of apparent bone volume/total volume (appBV/TV) with age (r = −0.5, P < 0.0005). Cortical area, endosteal and periosteal circumferences and muscle cross-sectional area showed a positive association to age (r > 0.49, P < 0.0001). In those over 17 years of age, these parameters were also higher in males than females (P < 0.05). This sex difference was also evident for appBV/TV and bone marrow adiposity (BMA) in the older participants (P < 0.05). AppBV/TV showed a negative correlation with BMA (r = −0.22, P = 0.01) which also showed an association with muscle adiposity (r = 0.24, P = 0.04). Cortical geometric parameters were highly correlated with muscle area (r > 0.57, P < 0.01).
In addition to providing deep insight into the normal relationships between bone, fat and muscle in young people, these novel data emphasize the role of MRI as a non-invasive method for performing a comprehensive and integrated assessment of musculoskeletal health in the growing skeleton.
Nella Augusta Greggio, Elisa Rossi, Silvia Calabria, Alice Meneghin, Joaquin Gutierrez de Rubalcava, Carlo Piccinni, and Antonella Pedrini
To estimate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) among children, by using levothyroxine low dosage as disease proxy, and to describe prescription pattern.
An historical cohort study was performed through administrative databases of 12 Italian Local Health Units covering 3,079,141 inhabitants. A cohort of children (aged 0–13 years) was selected in the period 2001–2014. A subgroup of new users (aged 0–9 years) was identified and followed up for 5 years.
The prevalence was provided as mean value of the whole period, as annual trend, by patient gender and age. Demographic details, information on levothyroxine dosage, comorbidities and co-medications were provided. Therapy duration and medication persistence were evaluated among new users.
644 children treated with levothyroxine low dosage was selected, with a mean annual prevalence of 0.20 per 1000 children. The temporal trend of prevalence was stable, with a slight reduction in the 2005–2008. Prevalence by age showed an increase after 10 years. Patients were treated with an average annual dose of 4290 µg/year and 66.9% of children were affected by comorbidities. Among 197 new users, 62.9% received therapy only for one year, whereas out of those treated two or more years, 89.0% resulted persistent to the therapy.
This study provides real-world epidemiology of SH among children, and it depicts the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of these subjects. Its findings showed that the SH treatment of this disorder was widely variable, also due to lack of evidence concerning paediatric population.