Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an inflammatory cytokine found to be elevated in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a part of the chronic low-grade inflammatory process in these states. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interleukin level in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes of the adults (LADA) in comparison to that in T2D subjects.
Materials and methods
IL-18 was analyzed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 76 participants with T2D and 24 with LADA and 14 control subjects. Evaluation was also carried out in body mass index (BMI)- and glycemic control-matched diabetic patients.
The serum concentration of IL-18 was higher in patients with T2D (389.04 ± 203.44 pg/mL) and LADA (327.04 ± 144.48 pg/mL) than that in control subjects (219.88 ± 91.03 pg/mL), P < 0.05. However, it was not significantly different between both diabetic groups (P = 0.255) despite higher IL-6 (4.78 ± 5.84 vs 1.79 ± 0.96 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (2.60 ± 1.70 vs 1.29 ± 1.20 mg/L, P = 0.002) level in T2D patients. The results were persistent in BMI-matched subjects with diabetes (IL-18 = 403.48 ± 226.32 vs 329.30 ± 146.30 pg/mL, respectively for T2D and LADA, P = 0.391). The correlations in T2D group concerning HDL cholesterol (r = −0.377, P = 0.001), postprandial glucose (r = 0.244, P = 0.043), IL-6 (r = 0.398, P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (r = 0.427, P = 0.001) were not confirmed in LADA and control subjects.
The IL-18 serum level was higher in T2D and LADA than that in control subjects, but did not differ between both diabetic groups, even when they were BMI matched. Correlations with lipid, glycemic and inflammatory parameters were present in T2D only.