Search Results

You are looking at 141 - 150 of 408 items for

  • Abstract: Aging x
  • Abstract: Autoimmune x
  • Abstract: Inflammation x
  • Abstract: Late effects of cancer treatment x
  • Abstract: Cognition x
  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Emanuela Zaharieva, Zdravko Kamenov, Tsvetelina Velikova, Adelina Tsakova, Yosif El-Darawish, and Haruki Okamura

Background

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an inflammatory cytokine found to be elevated in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a part of the chronic low-grade inflammatory process in these states. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interleukin level in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes of the adults (LADA) in comparison to that in T2D subjects.

Materials and methods

IL-18 was analyzed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 76 participants with T2D and 24 with LADA and 14 control subjects. Evaluation was also carried out in body mass index (BMI)- and glycemic control-matched diabetic patients.

Results

The serum concentration of IL-18 was higher in patients with T2D (389.04 ± 203.44 pg/mL) and LADA (327.04 ± 144.48 pg/mL) than that in control subjects (219.88 ± 91.03 pg/mL), P < 0.05. However, it was not significantly different between both diabetic groups (P = 0.255) despite higher IL-6 (4.78 ± 5.84 vs 1.79 ± 0.96 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (2.60 ± 1.70 vs 1.29 ± 1.20 mg/L, P = 0.002) level in T2D patients. The results were persistent in BMI-matched subjects with diabetes (IL-18 = 403.48 ± 226.32 vs 329.30 ± 146.30 pg/mL, respectively for T2D and LADA, P = 0.391). The correlations in T2D group concerning HDL cholesterol (r = −0.377, P = 0.001), postprandial glucose (r = 0.244, P = 0.043), IL-6 (r = 0.398, P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (r = 0.427, P = 0.001) were not confirmed in LADA and control subjects.

Conclusion

The IL-18 serum level was higher in T2D and LADA than that in control subjects, but did not differ between both diabetic groups, even when they were BMI matched. Correlations with lipid, glycemic and inflammatory parameters were present in T2D only.

Open access

S U Jayasinghe, S J Torres, C A Nowson, A J Tilbrook, and A I Turner

We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese men aged 50–70 years will have a greater salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and heart rate (HR) responses to psychological stress compared with age matched lean men. Lean (BMI=20–25 kg/m2; n=19) and overweight/obese (BMI=27–35 kg/m2; n=17) men (50–70 years) were subjected to a well-characterised psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) at 1500 h. Concentrations of cortisol and alpha amylase were measured in saliva samples collected every 7–15 min from 1400 to 1700 h. HR was recorded using electrocardiogram. Body weight, BMI, percentage body fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in overweight/obese men compared with lean men. Both groups responded to the TSST with a substantial elevation in salivary cortisol (372%), salivary alpha amylase (123%) and HR (22%). These responses did not differ significantly between the groups (time×treatment interaction for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR; P=0.187, P=0.288, P=0.550, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups for pretreatment values, peak height, difference between pretreatment values and peak height (reactivity) or area under the curve for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase or HR (P>0.05 for all). The results showed that, for men with a moderate level of overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy, the response of salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR to acute psychological stress was not impaired.

Open access

Jie Shi, Zhen Yang, Yixin Niu, Weiwei Zhang, Ning Lin, Xiaoyong Li, Hongmei Zhang, Hongxia Gu, Jie Wen, Guang Ning, Li Qin, and Qing Su

Objective

A small thigh circumference is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and total mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between thigh circumference and hypertension in the middle-aged and elderly population.

Methods

A total of 9520 individuals aged 40 years and older with measurement of thigh circumference were available for analysis. The measurement of thigh circumference was performed directly below the gluteal fold of the thigh. The association of thigh circumference with hypertension was tested in logistic regression analyses and reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI.

Results

Thigh circumference was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol. Compared with the lowest thigh circumference tertile group, the risk of hypertension was significantly lower in the highest tertile group, both in overweight individuals (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.59–0.79, P < 0.001) and obese individuals (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.38–0.70, P < 0.001).

Conclusion

In the present study, large thigh circumference is associated with lower risk of hypertension in overweight and obese Chinese individuals.

Open access

Karim Gariani, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider, and François R Jornayvaz

Background

Excessive glucocorticoid secretion has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other features of the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate whether basal or evening salivary cortisol may predict the occurrence of incident insulin resistance (IR) or T2DM.

Method

This was a prospective, population-based study derived from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study including 1525 participants (aged 57.7 ± 10.3 years; 725 women). A total of 1149 individuals were free from T2DM at baseline. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured after a follow-up of 5.3 years. Basal and evening salivary cortisol were measured at baseline. The association between basal or evening salivary cortisol level and incidence of IR or T2DM were analyzed by logistic regression, and the results were expressed for each independent variable as ORs and 95% CI.

Results

After a median follow-up of 5.3 years, a total of 376 subjects (24.7%) developed IR and 32 subjects (2.1%) developed T2DM. Basal and evening salivary cortisol divided in quartiles were not associated with incidence of IR or T2DM. Multivariable analysis for age, gender, body mass index, physical activity and smoking status showed no association between basal or evening salivary cortisol and incidence of IR or T2DM.

Conclusion

In the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study of healthy adults, neither basal nor evening salivary cortisol was associated with incident IR or T2DM.

Open access

Erika Urbano Lima, Ileana G S Rubio, Joaquim Custodio Da Silva, Ana Luiza Galrão, Danielle Pêssoa, Taise Cerqueira Oliveira, Fabiane Carrijo, Igor Silva Campos, Luciano Fonseca Espinheira, Luiz Jose Sampaio, Claudio Rogerio Lima, Janete Maria Cerutti, and Helton Estrela Ramos

Background

The inactivation of the tumor-suppressor homeodomain-only protein X (HOPX) usually involves promoter methylation in several cancer types. This study aimed to investigate the HOPX-β mRNA expression and promoter methylation and their clinical relevance in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).

Patients and methods

Clinicopathological data and paraffin-embedded thyroid tumor tissues from 21 patients with DTC and 6 with benign tumors (T) and their non-tumor parenchyma (NT) were investigated. Tumor cell lines (FTC238, FTC236 and WRO) were treated with demethylating agent. HOPX-β mRNA expression was assessed by qRT-PCR and methylation status by Q-MSP. Thyroid cancer data from Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was also collected.

Results

HOPX-β mRNA re-expression in two cell lines treated with demethylating agent was observed concomitantly with reduced promoter methylation. Reduced mRNA expression in T group compared to their NT was observed, and reduced protein expression in T compared to NT was observed in three cases. Low mRNA expression with high methylation status was detected in 6/14 DTC samples. High methylation status was associated with older age at diagnosis, recurrent or progressive disease and with the presence of new neoplasm event post initial therapy while hyper-methylation correlated with worse overall survival, worse disease-free status and older age.

Conclusion

A moderate coupling of downregulation of HOPX-β mRNA expression in DTC followed by high HOPX-β promoter methylation was observed however; high HOPX promoter methylation status was associated with the worse prognosis of DTC patients.

Open access

E Kohva, P J Miettinen, S Taskinen, M Hero, A Tarkkanen, and T Raivio

Background

We describe the phenotypic spectrum and timing of diagnosis and management in a large series of patients with disorders of sexual development (DSD) treated in a single pediatric tertiary center.

Methods

DSD patients who had visited our tertiary center during the survey period (between 2004 and 2014) were identified based on an ICD-10 inquiry, and their phenotypic and molecular genetic findings were recorded from patient charts.

Results

Among the 550 DSD patients, 53.3% had 46,XY DSD; 37.1% had sex chromosome DSD and 9.6% had 46,XX DSD. The most common diagnoses were Turner syndrome (19.8%, diagnosed at the mean age of 4.7 ± 5.5 years), Klinefelter syndrome (14.5%, 6.8 ± 6.2 years) and bilateral cryptorchidism (23.1%). Very few patients with 46,XY DSD (7%) or 46,XX DSD (21%) had molecular genetic diagnosis. The yearly rate of DSD diagnoses remained stable over the survey period. After the release of the Nordic consensus on the management of undescended testes, the age at surgery for bilateral cryptorchidism declined significantly (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Our results show that (i) Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome, the most frequent single DSD diagnoses, are still diagnosed relatively late; (ii) a temporal shift was observed in the management of bilateral cryptorchidism, which may favorably influence patients’ adulthood semen quality and (iii) next-generation sequencing methods are not fully employed in the diagnostics of DSD patients.

Open access

Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Ariadna Zybek-Kocik, Michał Kloska, Paulina Ziółkowska, Agata Czarnywojtek, Jerzy Sowiński, Dorota Mańkowska-Wierzbicka, and Marek Ruchała

Dysregulation of thyroid function has known impact on body metabolism, however, data regarding metabolic outcome after restoration of thyroid function is limited. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of restoration of euthyroidism on serum visfatin, and its associations with insulin resistance and body composition. This is an observational study with consecutive enrollment. Forty-nine hyperthyroid (median age of 34 years) and 44 hypothyroid women (median age of 46 years) completed the study. Laboratory parameters and body composition analysis were assessed before and after the therapy. In the hyperthyroid group, visfatin concentrations increased (P < 0.0001), while glucose concentrations decreased (P < 0.0001). Total body mass and fat mass in the trunk and limbs significantly increased during the treatment. In the hypothyroid group, significant weight loss resulted from decrease of fat and muscle masses in trunk and limbs. Visfatin serum concentrations positively correlated with total fat mass (r = 0.19, P = 0.01) and insulin concentrations (r = 0.17, P = 0.018). In conclusion, restoration of thyroid function is not associated with beneficial changes in body composition, especially among hyperthyroid females.

Open access

Yanmei Lou, Yanyan Zhang, Ping Zhao, Pei Qin, Changyi Wang, Jianping Ma, Xiaolin Peng, Hongen Chen, Dan Zhao, Shan Xu, Li Wang, Ming Zhang, Dongsheng Hu, and Fulan Hu

We aimed to assess the association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) change trajectory and incident hypertension among Chinese population. This cohort study included 11,791 adults aged 18–80 years without hypertension at first entry and who completed at least four follow-ups between 2009 and 2016. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the association between FPG change trajectory and probability of hypertension. During a median follow-up of 5.10 years (total person–years 61,887.76), hypertension developed in 2177 participants. After adjusting for baseline potential confounders, the probability of hypertension increased with the increasing FPG change trajectory (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.22, 95% CI 1.07–1.40), bell-shape trajectory (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02–1.30) and other-shape trajectory (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.25) which showed a higher variability of FPG compared to the decreasing group. In addition, the increasing FPG change trajectory was associated with a higher probability of hypertension compared with the decreasing group regardless of age and BMI but was only significant in males and in those with normal FPG at baseline. Our study indicates that the increasing FPG change trajectory determines the highest risk of hypertension, demonstrating the importance of maintaining low and stable levels of FPG, especially in males and in those with normal FPG.

Open access

Stine A Holmboe, Ravi Jasuja, Brian Lawney, Lærke Priskorn, Niels Joergensen, Allan Linneberg, Tina Kold Jensen, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Anders Juul, and Anna-Maria Andersson

Objective

Calculating the free testosterone level has gained increasing interest and different indirect algorithms have been suggested. The objective was to compare free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone estimated using the linear binding model (Vermeulen: cFTV) and the binding framework accounting for allosterically coupled SHBG monomers (Zakharov: cFTZ) in relation to cardiometabolic conditions.

Design

A prospective cohort study including 5350 men, aged 30–70 years, participating in population-based surveys (MONICA I–III and Inter99) from 1982 to 2001 and followed until December 2012 with baseline and follow-up information on cardiometabolic parameters and vital status.

Results

Using age-standardized hormone levels, FAI was higher among men with baseline cardiometabolic conditions, whereas cFTV and cFTZ levels were lower compared to men without these conditions as also seen for total testosterone. Men in highest quartiles of cFTV or cFTZ had lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (cFTV: HR = 0.74 (0.49–1.10), cFTZ: HR = 0.59 (0.39–0.91)) than men in lowest quartile. In contrast, men with highest levels of FAI had a 74% (1.17–2.59) increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to men in lowest quartile.

Conclusion

The association of estimated free testosterone and the studied outcomes differ depending on algorithm used. cFTV and cFTZ showed similar associations to baseline and long-term cardiometabolic parameters. In contrast, an empiric ratio, FAI, showed opposite associations to several of the examined parameters and may reflect limited clinical utility.

Open access

Sidsel Mathiesen, Kaspar Sørensen, Marianne Ifversen, Casper P Hagen, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Anders Juul, and Klaus Müller

Objectives

Longitudinal assessment of testicular function after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is needed to guide clinical follow-up. We investigated dynamics in male reproductive hormones after pediatric HSCT, focusing on pubertal timing and associations with testosterone deficiency and azoospermia in adulthood.

Methods

This retrospective, longitudinal study included 39 survivors median 19 years after pediatric HSCT. Serum concentrations of LH, testosterone, FSH, and inhibin B from the time of HSCT, during puberty, and into adulthood were analyzed. Pubertal timing (rise in LH and testosterone) was compared to a reference cohort of 112 healthy boys. Associations between reproductive hormone levels during puberty and adult testicular function (including semen quality) were investigated.

Results

Pubertal induction with testosterone was needed in 6/26 patients who were prepubertal at HSCT. In the remaining patients, pubertal timing was comparable to the reference cohort. However, 9/33 patients (without pubertal induction) developed testosterone deficiency in early adulthood, which was associated with higher LH levels from age 14 to 16 years. Azoospermia in adulthood was found in 18/26 patients without testosterone substitution. Higher FSH and lower inhibin B levels from mid-pubertal age were associated with azoospermia in adulthood, in patients being prepubertal at HSCT.

Conclusion

Our results indicate a substantial risk of deterioration in testicular function after pediatric HSCT, despite normal pubertal timing. Although reproductive hormone levels from mid-puberty indicated adult testicular function, prolonged follow-up into adulthood is needed in these patients, including clinical examination, reproductive hormone analysis, and semen sample for patients interested in their fertility potential.