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  • Abstract: Hyperparathyroidism x
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  • Abstract: Skeleton x
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Athanasios D Anastasilakis Department of Endocrinology, 424 General Military Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Marina Tsoli 1st Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Gregory Kaltsas 1st Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Polyzois Makras Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, 251 Hellenic Air Force & VA General Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of not well-defined etiology that involves immune cell activation and frequently affects the skeleton. Bone involvement in LCH usually presents in the form of osteolytic lesions along with low bone mineral density. Various molecules involved in bone metabolism are implicated in the pathogenesis of LCH or may be affected during the course of the disease, including interleukins (ILs), tumor necrosis factor α, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its soluble ligand RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), periostin and sclerostin. Among them IL-17A, periostin and RANKL have been proposed as potential serum biomarkers for LCH, particularly as the interaction between RANK, RANKL and OPG not only regulates bone homeostasis through its effects on the osteoclasts but also affects the activation and survival of immune cells. Significant changes in circulating and lesional RANKL levels have been observed in LCH patients irrespective of bone involvement. Standard LCH management includes local or systematic administration of corticosteroids and chemotherapy. Given the implication of RANK, RANKL and OPG in the pathogenesis of the disease and the osteolytic nature of bone lesions, agents aiming at inhibiting the RANKL pathway and/or osteoclastic activation, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, may have a role in the therapeutic approach of LCH although further clinical investigation is warranted.

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Huda M Elsharkasi Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Suet C Chen Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Lewis Steell Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Shuko Joseph Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Paediatric Neurosciences Research Group, Royal Hospital for Children, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Glasgow, UK

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Naiemh Abdalrahaman Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Christie McComb Department of Clinical Physics, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Glasgow, UK

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Blair Johnston Department of Clinical Physics, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Glasgow, UK

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John Foster Department of Clinical Physics, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Glasgow, UK

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Sze Choong Wong Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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S Faisal Ahmed Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Objective

The aim of this study is to investigate the role of 3T-MRI in assessing musculoskeletal health in children and young people.

Design

Bone, muscle and bone marrow imaging was performed in 161 healthy participants with a median age of 15.0 years (range, 8.0, 30.0).

Methods

Detailed assessment of bone microarchitecture (constructive interference in the steady state (CISS) sequence, voxel size 0.2 × 0.2 × 0.4 mm3), bone geometry (T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence, voxel size 0.4 × 0.4 × 2 mm3) and bone marrow (1H-MRS, point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) (single voxel size 20 × 20 × 20 mm3) size and muscle adiposity (Dixon, voxel size 1.1 × 1.1 × 2 mm3).

Results

There was an inverse association of apparent bone volume/total volume (appBV/TV) with age (r = −0.5, P < 0.0005). Cortical area, endosteal and periosteal circumferences and muscle cross-sectional area showed a positive association to age (r > 0.49, P < 0.0001). In those over 17 years of age, these parameters were also higher in males than females (P < 0.05). This sex difference was also evident for appBV/TV and bone marrow adiposity (BMA) in the older participants (P < 0.05). AppBV/TV showed a negative correlation with BMA (r = −0.22, P =  0.01) which also showed an association with muscle adiposity (r = 0.24, P = 0.04). Cortical geometric parameters were highly correlated with muscle area (r > 0.57, P < 0.01).

Conclusions

In addition to providing deep insight into the normal relationships between bone, fat and muscle in young people, these novel data emphasize the role of MRI as a non-invasive method for performing a comprehensive and integrated assessment of musculoskeletal health in the growing skeleton.

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Sofya Gronskaia Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Galina Melnichenko Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Liudmila Rozhinskaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Tatiana Grebennikova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Elizaveta Mamedova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ekaterina Pigarova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Elena Przhialkovskaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Larisa Dzeranova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ivan Dedov Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Valentin Fadeyev I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia

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Maria Luisa Brandi University of Florence, Surgery and Translational Medicine, Piereccaini, Firenze, Italy

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Zhanna Belaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rare endocrine disorders, characterized by low serum calcium due to inappropriate parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels or resistance to its action. There is little epidemiological information regarding chronic hypoparathyroidism in Russia. This study aims to build a registry database of Russian patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism who were referred for hospital treatment in order to conduct initial analysis of clinical presentations and hospital management. The Italian registry model was taken to be able to integrate our data in the future. Two hundred patients with hypoparathyroidism (n = 194) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (n = 6) were enrolled over 2 years (2017–2019). The most frequent cause of hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (82.5%, mostly females), followed by idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (10%), syndromic forms of genetic hypoparathyroidism (4.5%) and forms of defective PTH action (3%). Calcium supplements and alfacalcidol were prescribed in most cases. However, a minority of patients (n = 6) needed to receive teriparatide as the only way to maintain calcium levels and to prevent symptoms of hypocalcemia. Consequently, substitution treatment with parathyroid hormone should be available in certain cases of hypoparathyroidism. This database will be useful to estimate the potential requirement for recombinant PTH in Russia and standards for clinical and therapeutic approaches.

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Cristina Lamas Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Albacete, Spain

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Elena Navarro Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain

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Anna Casterás Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

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Paloma Portillo Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain

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Victoria Alcázar Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Leganés, Spain

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María Calatayud Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Univeristario Doce de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

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Cristina Álvarez-Escolá Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain

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Julia Sastre Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain

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Evangelina Boix Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Elche, Spain

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Lluis Forga Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

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Almudena Vicente Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain

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Josep Oriola Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Department, Hospital Clínic i Universitari de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Jordi Mesa Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

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Nuria Valdés Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain

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Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Bone and renal complications are common. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but the best timing for surgery is controversial and predictors of persistence and recurrence are not well known. Our study describes the clinical characteristics and the surgical outcomes, after surgery and in the long term, of the patients with MEN1 and primary hyperparathyroidism included in the Spanish Registry of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas (REGMEN). Eighty-nine patients (49 men and 40 women, 34.2 ± 13 years old) were included. Sixty-four out of the 89 underwent surgery: a total parathyroidectomy was done in 13 patients, a subtotal parathyroidectomy in 34 and a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy in 15. Remission rates were higher after a total or a subtotal parathyroidectomy than after a less than subtotal (3/4 and 20/22 vs 7/12, P < 0.05), without significant differences in permanent hypoparathyroidism (1/5, 9/23 and 0/11, N.S.). After a median follow-up of 111 months, 20 of the 41 operated patients with long-term follow-up had persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. We did not find differences in disease-free survival rates between different techniques, patients with or without permanent hypoparathyroidism and patients with different mutated exons, but a second surgery was more frequent after a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy.

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Rong Xu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Difei Lian Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Yan Xie Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Lin Mu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Yali Wu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Zhilei Chen Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Baoyu Zhang Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic bone disease in which bone density and quality decrease and bone fragility increases due to a variety of causes, making it prone to fractures. The development of OP is closely related to oxidative stress. Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in the human body. Extracellular UA has antioxidant properties and is thought to have a protective effect on bone metabolism. However, the process of UA degradation can lead to intracellular oxidative stress, which together with UA-induced inflammatory factors, leads to increased bone destruction. In addition, UA can inhibit vitamin D production, resulting in secondary hyperparathyroidism and further exacerbating UA-associated bone loss. This review summarizes the relationship between serum UA levels and bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and so on, in the hope of providing new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of OP.

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A Chinoy Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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M Skae Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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A Babiker King Abdullah Specialized Children’s Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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D Kendall Royal Preston Hospital, Preston, UK

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M Z Mughal Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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R Padidela Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Background

Hypoparathyroidism is characterised by hypocalcaemia, and standard management is with an active vitamin D analogue and adequate oral calcium intake (dietary and/or supplements). Little is described in the literature about the impact of intercurrent illnesses on calcium homeostasis in children with hypoparathyroidism.

Methods

We describe three children with hypoparathyroidism in whom intercurrent illnesses led to hypocalcaemia and escalation of treatment with alfacalcidol (1-hydroxycholecalciferol) and calcium supplements.

Results

Three infants managed with standard treatment for hypoparathyroidism (two with homozygous mutations in GCMB2 gene and one with Sanjad-Sakati syndrome) developed symptomatic hypocalcaemia (two infants developed seizures) following respiratory or gastrointestinal illnesses. Substantial increases in alfacalcidol doses (up to three times their pre-illness doses) and calcium supplementation were required to achieve acceptable serum calcium concentrations. However, following resolution of illness, these children developed an increase in serum calcium and hypercalciuria, necessitating rapid reduction to pre-illness dosages of alfacalcidol and oral calcium supplementation.

Conclusion

Intercurrent illness may precipitate symptomatic hypocalcaemia in children with hypoparathyroidism, necessitating increase in dosages of alfacalcidol and calcium supplements. Close monitoring is required on resolution of the intercurrent illness, with timely reduction of dosages of active analogues of vitamin D and calcium supplements to prevent hypercalcaemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis.

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Marcela Moraes Mendes Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Life Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

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Patricia Borges Botelho Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

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Helena Ribeiro Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Vitamin D enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralisation, promotes maintenance of muscle function, and is crucial for musculoskeletal health. Low vitamin D status triggers secondary hyperparathyroidism, increases bone loss, and leads to muscle weakness. The primary physiologic function of vitamin D and its metabolites is maintaining calcium homeostasis for metabolic functioning, signal transduction, and neuromuscular activity. A considerable amount of human evidence supports the well-recognised contribution of adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations for bone homeostasis maintenance and prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis when combined with adequate calcium intake. This paper aimed to review the literature published, mainly in the last 20 years, on the effect of vitamin D and its supplementation for musculoskeletal health in order to identify the aspects that remain unclear or controversial and therefore require further investigation and debate. There is a clear need for consistent data to establish realistic and meaningful recommendations of vitamin D status that consider different population groups and locations. Moreover, there is still a lack of consensus on thresholds for vitamin D deficiency and optimal status as well as toxicity, optimal intake of vitamin D, vitamin D supplement alone as a strategy to prevent fractures and falls, recommended sun exposure at different latitudes and for different skin pigmentations, and the extra skeletal effects of vitamin D.

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Anna Gorbacheva Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Anna Eremkina Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Daria Goliusova Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Julia Krupinova Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Natalia Mokrysheva Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most common cause of hereditary primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Bone disorders are considered one of the key symptoms in PHPT present with the significant reduction in bone mineral density and low-energy fractures. Previously, these bone disorders were believed to be caused solely by the increase in the level of parathyroid hormone and its subsequent effect on bone resorption. The current paradigm, however, states that the mutations in the menin gene, which cause the development of MEN1, can also affect the metabolism of the cells of the osteoid lineage. This review analyzes both the proven and the potential intracellular mechanisms through which menin can affect bone metabolism.

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Guido Zavatta Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Bart L Clarke Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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The first adjunctive hormone therapy for chronic hypoparathyroidism, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1–84) (rhPTH(1–84)) was approved by the FDA in January 2015. Since the approval of rhPTH(1–84), growing interest has developed in other agents to treat this disorder in both the scientific community and among pharmaceutical companies. For several reasons, conventional therapy with calcium and activated vitamin D supplementation, magnesium supplementation as needed, and occasionally thiazide-type diuretic therapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while endocrinologists and patients are constantly challenged by limitations of conventional treatment. Serum calcium fluctuations, increased urinary calcium, hyperphosphatemia, and a constellation of symptoms that limit mental and physical functioning are frequently associated with conventional therapy. Understanding how conventional treatment and hormone therapy work in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is key to effectively managing chronic hypoparathyroidism. Multiple questions remain regarding the effectiveness of PTH adjunctive therapy in preventing or slowing the onset and progression of the classical complications of hypoparathyroidism, such as chronic kidney disease, calcium-containing kidney stones, cataracts, or basal ganglia calcification. Several studies point toward an improvement in the quality of life during replacement therapy. This review will discuss current clinical and research challenges posed by treatment of chronic hypoparathyroidism.

Key points:

  • Conventional therapy with calcium and activated forms of vitamin D are currently the mainstays of treatment for most patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism.

  • Hormone therapy can be administered through FDA-approved once-daily rhPTH(1–84), or off-label multiple-daily injections of teriparatide. The former is the only FDA-approved drug, with safety and efficacy supported by a randomized placebo-controlled trial and open-label long-term extension trial data.

  • Twice-daily teriparatide has been used in children safely for up to 10 years.

  • New pharmacological options that replace the deficient hormone wi ll likely be available within the next few years.

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Jean-Philippe Bertocchio Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Physiologie, Paris, France
Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, INSERM, UMRS1138, Paris, France

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Natalie Grosset Hypoparathyroïdisme France, Annecy, France

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Lionel Groussin Department of Endocrinology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Cochin, Université de Paris, Paris, France

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Peter Kamenický Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm U1185, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphate, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Fabrice Larceneux Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR 7088, DRM [Ermes], Paris, France

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Anne Lienhardt-Roussie CHU Dupuytren, Hôpital Mère Enfant, Endocrinologie Pédiatrique, Limoges, France

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Agnès Linglart Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm U1185, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Service d’Endocrinologie et Diabète de l’Enfant, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore et Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Hôpital Bicêtre Paris Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Gérard Maruani Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Physiologie, Paris, France
Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Necker-Enfants Malades, INSERM U1151 – CNRS UMR 8253, Paris, France

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Eric Mirallie Chirurgie Cancérologique, Digestive et Endocrine, Institut des Maladies de l’Appareil Digestif, Hôtel Dieu, CHU Nantes, France
Association Francophone de Chirurgie Endocrinienne (AFCE), France

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François Pattou Université de Lille, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur Lille, Inserm U1190, Lille, France

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Riyad N H Seervai Molecular & Cellular Biology Graduate Program, Medical Scientist Training Program, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA

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Coralie Sido Hypoparathyroïdisme France, Annecy, France

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Caroline Silve Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Cochin, Biochimie et Génétique Moléculaires, Paris, France
INSERM, U1169, Université Paris Sud, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Aurélie Vilfaillot Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Unité de Recherche Clinique, Paris, France
INSERM, U1418, CIC-EC, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

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Antoine Tabarin Service Endocrinologie Diabète et Nutrition, CHU de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, Pessac, France

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Marie-Christine Vantyghem CHU Lille, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Inserm U1190, EGID, Lille, France

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Pascal Houillier Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Physiologie, Paris, France
Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, INSERM, UMRS1138, Paris, France
CNRS, ERL8228, Paris, France

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the investigators of the Épi-Hypo study
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Context

Recent guidelines have provided recommendations for the care of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism. Very little is known about actual physicians’ practices or their adherence to such guidelines.

Objective

To describe the physicians’ practice patterns and their compliance with international guidelines.

Design

The cohort studies included were Épi-Hypo (118 physicians and 107 patients, from September 2016 to December 2019) and ePatients (110 patients, November 2019).

Methods

Internet-based cohorts involving all settings at a nationwide level (France). Participants were (i) physicians treating patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism and patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism either participating in the (ii) Épi-Hypo study (Épi-Hypo 2019 patients), or (iii) Hypoparathyroidism France, the national representative association (ePatients).

Results

The physicians’ specialties were mainly endocrinology (61%), nephrology (28%), family medicine (2.5%), pediatrics (2.5%), rheumatology (2%), or miscellaneous (4%) and 45% were practicing in public universities. The median number of pharmaceutical drug classes prescribed was three per patient. The combination of active vitamin D and calcium salt was given to 59 and 58% of ePatients and Épi-Hypo 2019 patients, respectively. Eighty-five percent of ePatients and 87% of physicians reported monitoring plasma calcium concentrations at a steady state at least twice a year. In 32 and 26% of cases, respectively, ePatients and physicians reported being fully in accordance with international guidelines that recommend targeting symptoms, plasma calcium and phosphate values, and urine calcium excretion.

Conclusions

The care of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism involves physicians with very different practices, so guidelines should include and target other specialists as well as endocrinologists. Full adherence to the guidelines is low in France.

Open access