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Open access

Vito Francic, Martin Keppel, Verena Schwetz, Christian Trummer, Marlene Pandis, Valentin Borzan, Martin R Grübler, Nicolas D Verheyen, Marcus E Kleber, Graciela Delgado, Angela P Moissl, Benjamin Dieplinger, Winfried März, Andreas Tomaschitz, Stefan Pilz, and Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch

Objective

Cardiovascular disease manifestation and several associated surrogate markers, such as vitamin D, have shown substantial seasonal variation. A promising cardiovascular biomarker, soluble ST2 (sST2), has not been investigated in this regard – we therefore determined if systemic levels of sST2 are affected by seasonality and/or vitamin D in order to investigate their clinical interrelation and usability.

Design

sST2 levels were measured in two cohorts involving hypertensive patients at cardiovascular risk, the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial (study A; RCT design, 8 weeks 2800 IU cholecalciferol daily) and the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (LURIC; study B; cross-sectional design).

Methods

The effects of a vitamin D intervention on sST2 levels were determined in study A using ANCOVA, while seasonality of sST2 levels was determined in study B using ANOVA.

Results

The concentrations of sST2 remained unchanged by a vitamin D intervention in study A, with a mean treatment effect (95% confidence interval) of 0.1 (−0.6 to 0.8) ng/mL; P = 0.761), despite a rise in 25(OH)D (11.3 (9.2–13.5) ng/mL; P < 0.001) compared to placebo. In study B, seasonal variations were present in 25(OH)D levels in men and women with or without heart failure (P < 0.001 for all subgroups), while sST2 levels remained unaffected by the seasons in all subgroups.

Conclusions

Our study provides the first evidence that systemic sST2 levels are not interrelated with vitamin D levels or influenced by the seasons in subjects at cardiovascular risk.

Open access

Zhen-yu Song, Qiuming Yao, Zhiyuan Zhuo, Zhe Ma, and Gang Chen

Previous studies investigating the association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with prognosis of prostate cancer yielded controversial results. We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis to elucidate the relationship. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies up to July 15, 2018. We performed a dose–response meta-analysis using random-effect model to calculate the summary hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI of mortality in patients with prostate cancer. Seven eligible cohort studies with 7808 participants were included. The results indicated that higher vitamin D level could reduce the risk of death among prostate cancer patients. The summary HR of prostate cancer-specific mortality correlated with an increment of every 20 nmol/L in circulating vitamin D level was 0.91, with 95% CI 0.87–0.97, P = 0.002. The HR for all-cause mortality with the increase of 20 nmol/L vitamin D was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, P = 0.01). Sensitivity analysis suggested the pooled HRs were stable and not obviously changed by any single study. No evidence of publications bias was observed. This meta-analysis suggested that higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was associated with a reduction of mortality in prostate cancer patients and vitamin D is an important protective factor in the progression and prognosis of prostate cancer.

Open access

Eliana Piantanida, Daniela Gallo, Giovanni Veronesi, Eugenia Dozio, Eugenia Trotti, Adriana Lai, Silvia Ippolito, Jessica Sabatino, Maria Laura Tanda, Antonio Toniolo, Marco Ferrario, and Luigi Bartalena

Objective

The aim of this observational study was to clarify the link between vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with visceral obesity.

Design and methods

One hundred ninety-six consecutive patients (152 women; mean age 51 ± 13 years) with visceral obesity (mean body weight 103 ± 20 kg, mean waist circumference (WC) 119 ± 13 cm) were enrolled at the Obesity Outpatient Clinic of the University of Insubria in Varese. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Laboratory tests, including vitamin D (25(OH)D)), fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests were assessed. Vitamin D status was defined according to the European Society of Endocrinology guidelines, MetS to the 2009 harmonized definition.

Results

An inverse association emerged among 25(OH)D, body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.001) and WC (all P = 0.003). Serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely related to FBG and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (respectively, P = 0.01 and 0.02). Median serum 25(OH)D levels were 13.3 ng/mL (CI 95% 12; 15) in MetS and 16 ng/mL (CI 95% 14; 18) (P = 0.01) in non-MetS patients. Among patients with MetS, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were related to higher risk of hypertension (HT) (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, CI 95%, 0.7;4) and hyperglycemia (IFG)/type 2 diabetes (OR 5.5, CI 95% 2; 14).

Conclusion

Vitamin D status and MetS are inversely correlated in visceral obesity, particularly with regard to glucose homeostasis and BP. More extensive studies are required to investigate the potential for causality.

Open access

Marc Blondon, Emmanuel Biver, Olivia Braillard, Marc Righini, Pierre Fontana, and Alessandro Casini

Objective

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risks of arterial and venous cardiovascular events. Hypothetically, supplementation with vitamin D may lead to a less prothrombotic phenotype, as measured by global coagulation assays and fibrin clot structure.

Methods

In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled adult outpatients attending the Primary Care Division of the Geneva University Hospitals with a severe vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25-OHD) <25 nmol/L), excluding obese patients or with a recent acute medical event. We evaluated changes in coagulation times, thrombin generation assay, clot formation and clot lysis time, 25-OHD and parathormone before and 1–3 months after cholecalciferol oral supplementation with one-time 300,000 IU then 800 IU daily. Paired t-tests with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 compared absolute mean differences.

Results

The 48 participants had a mean age of 43.8 ± 13.8 years. After supplementation, 25-OHD levels increased from 17.9 ± 4.6 nmol/L to 62.5 ± 20.7 nmol/L 6.4 ± 3.0 weeks after inclusion. Endogenous thrombin potential and thrombin generation peak values both decreased significantly (−95.4 nM × min (95%CI −127.9 to −62.8), P < 0.001; −15.1 nM (−23.3 to −6.8), P < 0.001). The maximum absorbance by turbidimetry decreased significantly (P = 0.001) after supplementation. There was no change in clot lysis time, coagulation times or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and homocysteine levels.

Conclusions

In severe vitamin D deficiency, a high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation was associated with a reduction in thrombin generation and an average decreased number of fibrin protofibrils per fibers and fibrin fiber size measured by turbidimetry. This suggests that severe vitamin D deficiency may be associated with a potentially reversible prothrombotic profile.

Open access

R Perchard, L Magee, A Whatmore, F Ivison, P Murray, A Stevens, M Z Mughal, S Ehtisham, J Campbell, S Ainsworth, M Marshall, M Bone, I Doughty, and P E Clayton

Background

Higher 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with lower HbA1c, but there are limited UK interventional trials assessing the effect of cholecalciferol on HbA1c.

Aims

(1) To assess the baseline 25(OH)D3 status in a Manchester cohort of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (2) To determine the effect of cholecalciferol administration on HbA1c.

Methods

Children with T1D attending routine clinic appointments over three months in late winter/early spring had blood samples taken with consent. Participants with a 25(OH)D3 level <50 nmol/L were treated with a one-off cholecalciferol dose of 100,000 (2–10 years) or 160,000 (>10 years) units. HbA1c levels before and after treatment were recorded.

Results

Vitamin D levels were obtained from 51 children. 35 were Caucasian, 11 South Asian and 5 from other ethnic groups. 42 were vitamin D deficient, but 2 were excluded from the analysis. All South Asian children were vitamin D deficient, with mean 25(OH)D3 of 28 nmol/L. In Caucasians, there was a negative relationship between baseline 25(OH)D3 level and HbA1c (r = −0.484, P < 0.01). In treated participants, there was no significant difference in mean HbA1c at 3 months (t = 1.010, P = 0.328) or at 1 year (t = −1.173, P = 0.248) before and after treatment. One-way ANCOVA, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI and diabetes duration showed no difference in Δ HbA1c level.

Conclusion

We report important findings at baseline, but in children treated with a stat dose of cholecalciferol, there was no effect on HbA1c. Further studies with larger sample sizes and using maintenance therapy are required.

Open access

Maxime Duval, Kalyane Bach-Ngohou, Damien Masson, Camille Guimard, Philippe Le Conte, and David Trewick

Objective

Severe hypocalcemia (Ca <1.9 mmol/L) is often considered an emergency because of a potential risk of cardiac arrest or seizures. However, there is little evidence to support this. The aim of our study was to assess whether severe hypocalcemia was associated with immediately life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias or neurological complications.

Methods

A retrospective observational study was carried out over a 2-year period in the Adult Emergency Department (ED) of Nantes University Hospital. All patients who had a protein-corrected calcium concentration measure were eligible for inclusion. Patients with multiple myeloma were excluded. The primary outcome was the number of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and/or neurological complications during the stay in the ED.

Results

A total of 41,823 patients had protein-corrected calcium (pcCa) concentrations measured, 155 had severe hypocalcemia, 22 were excluded because of myeloma leaving 133 for analysis. Median pcCa concentration was 1.73 mmol/L (1.57–1.84). Seventeen (12.8%) patients presented a life-threatening condition, 14 (10.5%) neurological and 3 (2.2%) cardiac during ED stay. However, these complications could be explained by the presence of underlying co-morbidities and or electrolyte disturbances other than hypocalcemia. Overall, 24 (18%) patients died in hospital. Vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease and hypoparathyroidism were the most frequently found causes of hypocalcemia.

Conclusion

Thirteen percent of patients with severe hypocalcemia presented a life-threatening cardiac or neurological complication on the ED. However, a perfectly valid alternative cause could account for these complications. Further research is warranted to define the precise role of hypocalcemia.

Open access

Sarah Bakhamis, Faiqa Imtiaz, Khushnooda Ramzan, Edward De Vol, Osamah Al-Sagheir, Abdulrahman Al-Rajhi, Abdullah Alashwal, Bassam Bin Abbas, Nadia Sakati, and Afaf Al-Sagheir

Vitamin D deficiency remains a major cause of rickets worldwide. Nutritional factors are the major cause and less commonly, inheritance causes. Recently, CYP2R1 has been reported as a major factor for 25-hydroxylation contributing to the inherited forms of vitamin D deficiency. We conducted a prospective cohort study at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to review cases with 25-hydroxylase deficiency and describe their clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic features. We analyzed 27 patients from nine different families who presented with low 25-OH vitamin D and not responding to usual treatment. Genetic testing identified two mutations: c.367+1G>A (12/27 patients) and c.768dupT (15/27 patients), where 18 patients were homozygous for their identified mutation and 9 patients were heterozygous. Both groups had similar clinical manifestations ranging in severity, but none of the patients with the heterozygous mutation had hypocalcemic manifestations. Thirteen out of 18 homozygous patients and all the heterozygous patients responded to high doses of vitamin D treatment, but they regressed after decreasing the dose, requiring lifelong therapy. Five out of 18 homozygous patients required calcitriol to improve their biochemical data, whereas none of the heterozygous patients and patients who carried the c.367+1G>A mutation required calcitriol treatment. To date, this is the largest cohort series analyzing CYP2R1-related 25-hydroxylase deficiency worldwide, supporting its major role in 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D. It is suggested that a higher percentage of CYP2R1 mutations might be found in the Saudi population. We believe that our study will help in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of similar cases in the future.

Open access

Kristin Godang, Karolina Lundstam, Charlotte Mollerup, Stine Lyngvi Fougner, Ylva Pernow, Jörgen Nordenström, Thord Rosén, Svante Jansson, Mikael Hellström, Jens Bollerslev, Ansgar Heck, and the SIPH Study Group

Context

Mild primary hyperparathyroidism has been associated with increased body fat mass and unfavorable cardiovascular risk factors.

Objective

To assess the effect of parathyroidectomy on fat mass, glucose and lipid metabolism.

Design, patients, interventions, main outcome measures

119 patients previously randomized to observation (OBS; n = 58) or parathyroidectomy (PTX; n = 61) within the Scandinavian Investigation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism (SIPH) trial, an open randomized multicenter study, were included. Main outcome measures for this study were the differences in fat mass, markers for lipid and glucose metabolism between OBS and PTX 5 years after randomization.

Results

In the OBS group, total cholesterol (Total-C) decreased from mean 5.9 (±1.1) to 5.6 (±1.0) mmol/L (P = 0.037) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased from 3.7 (±1.0) to 3.3 (±0.9) mmol/L (P = 0.010). In the PTX group, the Total-C and LDL-C remained unchanged resulting in a significant between-group difference over time (P = 0.013 and P = 0.026, respectively). This difference was driven by patients who started with lipid-lowering medication during the study period (OBS: 5; PTX: 1). There was an increase in trunk fat mass in the OBS group, but no between-group differences over time. Mean 25(OH) vitamin D increased in the PTX group (P < 0.001), but did not change in the OBS group. No difference in parameters of glucose metabolism was detected.

Conclusion

In mild PHPT, the measured metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors were not modified by PTX. Observation seems safe and cardiovascular risk reduction should not be regarded as a separate indication for parathyroidectomy based on the results from this study.

Open access

Cecília Cristelo, Alexandra Machado, Bruno Sarmento, and Francisco Miguel Gama

Type 1 diabetes has an increasingly greater incidence and prevalence with no cure available. Vitamin D supplementation is well documented to reduce the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Being involved in the modulation of cathelicidin expression, the question whether cathelicidin may be one of the underlying cause arises. Cathelicidin has been implicated in both the development and the protection against type 1 diabetes by mediating the interplay between the gut microbiome, the immune system and β cell function. While its potential on type 1 diabetes treatment seems high, the understanding of its effects is still limited. This review aims to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the potential of vitamin D and cathelicidin as adjuvants in type 1 diabetes therapy.

Open access

Monika Bilic, Huma Qamar, Akpevwe Onoyovwi, Jill Korsiak, Eszter Papp, Abdullah Al Mahmud, Rosanna Weksberg, Alison D Gernand, Jennifer Harrington, and Daniel E Roth

Fetal growth restriction is linked to adverse health outcomes and is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries; however, determinants of fetal growth are still poorly understood. The objectives were to determine the effect of prenatal vitamin D supplementation on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis at birth, to compare the concentrations of IGF-I in newborns in Bangladesh to a European reference population and to estimate the associations between IGF protein concentrations and birth size. In a randomized controlled trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh, pregnant women enrolled at 17–24 weeks of gestation were assigned to weekly oral vitamin D3 supplementation from enrolment to delivery at doses of 4200 IU/week, 16,800 IU/week, 28,000 IU/week or placebo. In this sub-study, 559 woman–infant pairs were included for analysis and cord blood IGF protein concentrations were quantified at birth. There were no significant effects of vitamin D supplementation on cord blood concentrations of IGF-I (P = 0.398), IGF-II (P = 0.525), binding proteins (BPs) IGFBP-1 (P = 0.170), IGFBP-3 (P = 0.203) or the molar ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 (P = 0.941). In comparison to a European reference population, 6% of girls and 23% of boys had IGF-I concentrations below the 2.5th percentile of the reference population. IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3 and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were positively associated with at least one anthropometric parameter, whereas IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with birth anthropometry. In conclusion, prenatal vitamin D supplementation does not alter or enhance fetal IGF pathways.